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Insights into Land Plant Evolution Garnered from the Marchantia polymorpha Genome. Bowman JL et al. Cell. (2017)

Marchantia. Berger F et al. Curr Biol. (2016)

Marchantia polymorpha: Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Morphology of a Model System. Shimamura M et al. Plant Cell Physiol. (2016)

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Items: 1 to 20 of 490

1.
Front Microbiol. 2019 Feb 28;10:372. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00372. eCollection 2019.

Sunagoke Moss (Racomitrium japonicum) Used for Greening Roofs Is Severely Damaged by Sclerotium delphinii and Protected by a Putative Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Isolate.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnological Science, Graduate School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, Wakayama, Japan.
2
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Abstract

Mosses are ecologically important plants also used for greening, gardening, and decorative purposes. Knowledge of the microbial flora associated with mosses is expected to be important for control and preservation of global and local environments. However, the moss-associated microbial flora is often poorly known. Moss-associated fungi and bacteria may promote plant growth and pest control, but they may be alternative hosts for pathogens of vascular plants. In this study, the fungus Sclerotinia delphinii was identified for the first time as a pathogen that causes severe damage to Sunagoke moss (Racomitrium japonicum). This moss is used for greening roofs and walls of buildings in urban environments owing to its notable tolerance of environmental stresses. Inoculation with the S. delphinii strain SR1 of the mono- and dicotyledonous seed plants Hordeum vulgare, Brassica rapa var. pekinensis, Lactuca sativa, and Spinacia oleracea, in addition to the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the moss Physcomitrella patens, showed that the fungus has a wide host range. Colonization with SR1 progressed more rapidly in non-vascular than in vascular plant species. Studies with P. patens under controlled conditions showed that SR1 secreted a fluid during colonization. Treatment with the secretion induced production of reactive oxygen species in the moss. Endogenous peroxidase partially inhibited SR1 colonization of P. patens. A bacterial isolate, most likely Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, that coexists with R. japonicum was antagonistic to SR1 growth. Taken together, the present results suggest that fungal colonization of mosses may be prevented by a peroxidase secreted by the moss and an antagonistic bacterium coexisting in the moss habitat. The findings suggest that there is potential to apply biological control measures for protection of mosses against fungal pathogens.

KEYWORDS:

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Racomitrium japonicum; Sclerotium delphinii; antagonist; bryophyte; pathogen

2.
PLoS Genet. 2019 Mar 7;15(3):e1007997. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007997. eCollection 2019 Mar.

Control of proliferation in the haploid meristem by CLE peptide signaling in Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
3
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
4
Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
5
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
6
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
7
Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.

Abstract

The homeostasis of meristems in flowering plants is maintained by cell-to-cell communication via CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related) peptide hormones. In contrast, cell signals that regulate meristem activity remains elusive in bryophytes that maintain apical meristems in the gametophyte (haploid) body and undergo a gametophyte-dominant life cycle. We here show that MpCLE1 confines the proliferative activity of gametophytic meristem and affects the overall size of gametangiophores (reproductive organs) in Marchantia polymorpha, which is in sharp contrast with the meristem-promoting function of its ortholog TDIF/CLE41/CLE44 in Arabidopsis vascular meristems. Expression analysis suggests that MpCLE1 and its receptor gene MpTDR are expressed in distinct patterns across the apical meristem. These data suggest that local CLE peptide signaling may have had a role in regulating cell proliferation in the shoot meristem in the ancestral land plant and acts in both sporophytic and gametophytic meristems of extant plants.

PMID:
30845139
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1007997
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Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

3.
J Plant Res. 2019 Mar;132(2):197-209. doi: 10.1007/s10265-019-01095-w. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Genome-wide analysis of MpBHLH12, a IIIf basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan.
2
Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641, Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan. morohashi.1@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp.

Abstract

The evolution of plants on land required adaptation to UV radiation and dry environments, and involved the appearance and/or rewiring of genetic connections, known as gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which consist of one or more transcription factors (TFs). The liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, is a basal land plant, with a recently sequenced genome. The number of genes encoding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family members is considerably higher in M. polymorpha than in charophyte green algae, suggesting the contribution of bHLH proteins to the evolution of GRNs associated with the adaptation of plants to land. Although an understanding of the evolutionary aspects of GRNs is fundamental for elucidating the mechanisms of environmental adaptation, the evolution of GRNs that led to land adaptation in plants remains poorly understood. In this study, we isolated a single gene encoding a IIIf bHLH TF from M. polymorpha, MpBHLH12. Transgenic M. polymorpha constitutively overexpressing MpBHLH12 showed smaller and fewer gemma cups than wild type, suggesting that MpBHLH12 is involved in the regulation of morphological development. Transcriptomic analysis of MpBHLH12 overexpressor (MpBHLH12ox) lines revealed an overlap with the GRN of MpMYB14, which regulates the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. However, MpBHLH12ox did not show anthocyanin accumulation. Results of the transient reporter assay suggest that MpBHLH12 could function in repression rather than activation. Our findings suggest that although the IIIf bHLH MpBHLH12 shows highest amino acid similarity with IIIf bHLH clade and is involved in developmental process and partly biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in M. polymorpha like Arabidopsis IIIf bHLH, the GRN involving MpBHLH12 would be distinct one from those of the IIIf bHLH TFs of seed plants.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis thaliana; Gene regulatory network; Marchantia polymorpha; bHLH transcription factor

4.
Planta. 2019 Jan 19. doi: 10.1007/s00425-019-03090-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Physiological function of photoreceptor UVR8 in UV-B tolerance in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Department of Biosciences, Kanto Gakuin University College of Science and Engineering, Yokohama, 236-8501, Japan. youichi@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp.
2
Department of Biosciences, Kanto Gakuin University College of Science and Engineering, Yokohama, 236-8501, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.
4
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe, 658-8501, Japan.
5
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.
6
Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe, 657-8501, Japan.

Abstract

The physiological importance of MpUVR8 in UV-B resistance and translocation in a UV-B-dependent manner from the cytosol into the nucleus is characterized in Marchantia polymorpha. UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) is an ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light receptor functioning for UV-B sensing and tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. It is unclear whether UVR8 physiologically functions in UV-B-induced defense responses in Marchantia polymorpha, which belongs to the earliest diverging group of embryophyte lineages. Here, we demonstrate that UVR8 has a physiological function in UV-B tolerance and that there is a UVR8-dependent pathway involved. In addition, a UVR8-independent pathway is revealed. We examine the tissue-specific expression pattern of M. polymorpha UVR8 (MpUVR8), showing that it is highly expressed in the apical notch in thalli and gametangiophores, as well as in antheridial and archegonial heads. Furthermore, Mpuvr8KO plant transformants, in which the MpUVR8 locus was disrupted, were produced and analyzed to understand the physiological and molecular function of MpUVR8. Analysis using these plants indicates the important roles of MpUVR8 and MpUVR8-regulated genes, and of MpUVR8-independent pathways in UV-B tolerance. Subcellular localization of Citrine-fused MpUVR8 in M. polymorpha cells was also investigated. It was found to translocate from the cytosol into the nucleus in response to UV-B irradiation. Our findings indicate strong conservation of the physiological function of UVR8 and the molecular mechanisms for UVR8-dependent signal transduction through regulation of gene expression in embryophytes.

KEYWORDS:

Land plant; Nuclear translocation; UV-B signal transduction; UV-B-absorbing compounds; UVR8-independent pathway

5.
Plant Cell Physiol. 2019 Feb 28. pii: pcz029. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcz029. [Epub ahead of print]

Reproductive induction is a far-red high irradiance response that is mediated by phytochrome and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR in Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Abstract

Land plants have evolved a series of photoreceptors to precisely perceive environmental information. Among these, phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for red light (R) and far-red light (FR), and play pivotal roles in modulating various developmental processes. Most extant land plants possess multiple phytochromes that probably evolved from a single phytochrome in the common ancestor of land plants. However, the ancestral phytochrome signaling mechanism remains unknown due to a paucity of knowledge regarding phytochrome functions in basal land plants. It has recently been reported that Mpphy, a single phytochrome in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, regulates typical photoreversible responses collectively classified as low fluence response (LFR). Here we show that Mpphy also regulates the gametangiophore formation analogous to the mode of action of the far-red high irradiance response (FR-HIR) in angiosperms. Our phenotypic analyses using mutant plants obtained by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing revealed that MpFHY1, an orthologue of FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1, as well as Mpphy is critical for the FR-HIR signaling in M. polymorpha. In addition, knockout of MpPIF, a single PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR gene in M. polymorpha, completely abolished the FR-HIR-dependent gametangiophore formation, while overexpression of MpPIF accelerated the response. FR-HIR-dependent transcriptional regulation was also disrupted in the Mppif mutant. Our findings suggest that plants had already acquired the FR-HIR signaling mediated by phytochrome and PIF at a very early stage during the course of land plant evolution, and that a single phytochrome in the common ancestor of land plants could mediate both LFR and FR-HIR.

KEYWORDS:

FHY1 (FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1); FR-HIR (Far-red high irradiance response); Marchantia polymorpha; PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR); Phytochrome; Sexual Reproduction

6.
Front Plant Sci. 2019 Jan 29;10:36. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00036. eCollection 2019.

Messages From the Past: New Insights in Plant Lectin Evolution.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Glycobiology, Department of Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Abstract

Lectins are a large and diverse class of proteins, found in all kingdoms of life. Plants are known to express different types of carbohydrate-binding proteins, each containing at least one particular lectin domain which enables them to specifically recognize and bind carbohydrate structures. The group of plant lectins is heterogeneous in terms of structure, biological activity and function. Lectins control various aspects of plant development and defense. Some lectins facilitate recognition of exogenous danger signals or play a role in endogenous signaling pathways, while others are considered as storage proteins or involved in symbiotic relationships. In this study, we revisit the origin of the different plant lectin families in view of the recently reshaped tree of life. Due to new genomic sampling of previously unknown microbial lineages, the tree of life has expanded and was reshaped multiple times. In addition, more plant genomes especially from basal Phragmoplastophyta, bryophytes, and Salviniales (e.g., Chara braunii, Marchantia polymorpha, Physcomitrella patens, Azolla filiculoides, and Salvinia cucullata) have been analyzed, and annotated genome sequences have become accessible. We searched 38 plant genome sequences including core eudicots, monocots, gymnosperms, fern, lycophytes, bryophytes, charophytes, chlorophytes, glaucophytes, and rhodophytes for lectin motifs, performed an extensive comparative analysis of lectin domain architectures, and determined the phylogenetic and evolutionary history of lectins in the plant lineage. In conclusion, we describe the conservation of particular domains in plant lectin sequences obtained from algae to higher plants. The strong conservation of several lectin motifs highlights their significance for plants.

KEYWORDS:

evolutionary diversity; gene family evolution; lectin; lower plants; protein domain

7.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1924:53-61. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9015-3_6.

Observation of Phototropic Responses in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
2
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. tkohchi@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

The liverwort species, Marchantia polymorpha, shows environment-dependent morphological plasticity throughout its life cycle. Thalli, representing the predominant body form throughout most of this bryophyte's life cycle, grow with repeated dichotomous branching at the apex and develop horizontally under sufficient light intensity. Spores, after germination, produce a mass of cells, called sporelings, which then grow into thalli. Both thalli and sporelings, if grown under weak light conditions, form narrow shapes, and their apices grow toward the light source. These phototropic responses are specific to blue light and dependent on the blue-light receptor phototropin. This chapter provides several basic procedures, along with some tips, for designing and performing experiments with M. polymorpha to observe their phototropic responses, as well as methods for observing the localization of the phototropin "Mpphot" with a fluorescent protein tag.

KEYWORDS:

Blue light; Gemmaling; Liverwort; Marchantia polymorpha; Phototropic responses; Phototropin; Sporeling

8.
Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Aug;129:400-410. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.06.019. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Isolation and functional characterization of hydroxycinnamoyltransferases from the liverworts Plagiochasma appendiculatum and Marchantia paleacea.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address: aixiacheng@sdu.edu.cn.
3
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address: louhongxiang@sdu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT, EC: 2.3.1.133) is a key metabolic entry point for the synthesis of monolignols in vascular plants; however, little is known about HCT in liverworts. Here, the isolation and characterization of HCTs encoded by the two liverwort species, Plagiochasma appendiculatum and Marchantia paleacea, are described. The sequences of the two enzymes harbor features typical of BAHD family members, except for the presence of a stretch of >100 residues that are not represented in higher plant HCTs. When truncated versions of both genes, which were constructed to clarify the significance of these extra residues, were investigated, it became apparent that the full-length and the truncated gene products shared similar catalytic activity and recognized the same substrates in vitro. They also functioned equivalently in vivo either when transiently expressed in tobacco to cause a higher total production of CGA (5-CQA) and 4-CQA or stably expressed in liverworts to accumulate the lignin-like contents. A structural model of MpHCT suggests that its active site bind to its substrate similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana HCT. While truncated forms of HCT were deposited in the nucleocytoplasm, the full-length versions occurred exclusively in the cytoplasm. The conclusion is that liverworts produce bona fide HCTs that represent a point of departure in studying the evolution of lignin synthesis in plants.

KEYWORDS:

HCT; Lignin; Liverworts; Similar catalytic pattern; Sub-cellular localization; Truncation

PMID:
30691636
DOI:
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.06.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
Phytochemistry. 2019 Mar;159:190-198. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.12.001. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

The identification and functional characterization of three liverwort class I O-methyltransferases.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address: aixiacheng@sdu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Previously it has been shown that the caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) type enzyme PaF6OMT, synthesized by the liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. & Lindenb., (Aytoniaceae), interacts preferentially with 6-OH flavones. To clarify the biochemistry and evolution of liverwort OMTs, a comparison was made between the nucleotide sequence and biological activity of PaF6OMT and those of three of its homologs MpOMT1 (from Marchantia paleacea Bertol., (Marchantiaceae)), MeOMT1 (Marchantia emarginata Reinw et al., (Marchantiaceae)) and HmOMT1 (Haplomitrium mnioides (Lindb.) Schust., (Haplomitriaceae)). The four genes shared >60% level of sequence identity with one another but a <20% level of similarity with typical CCoAOMT or CCoAOMT-like sequences; they clustered with genes encoding animal catechol methyltransferases. The recombinant OMTs recognized phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and coumarins as substrates, but not catechol. MpOMT1 and PaF6OMT exhibited some differences with respect to their substrate preference, and the key residues underlying this preference were identified using site-directed mutagenesis. The co-expression of MpOMT1 and the Arabidopsis thaliana gene encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthase in Escherichia coli was shown to be an effective means of enhancing the production of the pharmacologically active compounds scopoletin and oroxylin A. Liverwort OMTs are thought likely to represent an ancestral out-group of bona fide higher plant CCoAOMTs in evolution and have the potential to be exploited for the production of methylated flavones and coumarins.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeoyl coenzyme A O-methyltransferase; Evolution; Liverworts; Metabolic engineering; Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. & Lindenb (Aytoniaceae)

PMID:
30634081
DOI:
10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.12.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
Curr Top Dev Biol. 2019;131:257-298. doi: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2018.10.008. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The evolution and patterning of male gametophyte development.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Electronic address: dh253@le.ac.uk.
2
Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom. Electronic address: twe@le.ac.uk.

Abstract

The reproductive adaptations of land plants have played a key role in their terrestrial colonization and radiation. This encompasses mechanisms used for the production, dispersal and union of gametes to support sexual reproduction. The production of small motile male gametes and larger immotile female gametes (oogamy) in specialized multicellular gametangia evolved in the charophyte algae, the closest extant relatives of land plants. Reliance on water and motile male gametes for sexual reproduction was retained by bryophytes and basal vascular plants, but was overcome in seed plants by the dispersal of pollen and the guided delivery of non-motile sperm to the female gametes. Here we discuss the evolutionary history of male gametogenesis in streptophytes (green plants) and the underlying developmental biology, including recent advances in bryophyte and angiosperm models. We conclude with a perspective on research trends that promise to deliver a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of male gametogenesis in plants.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis thaliana; Chromatin; Flagella; Gametes; Ginkgo biloba; Green algae; Male gametogenesis; Marchantia polymorpha; Molecular evolution; Pollen; Sexual reproduction; Sperm; Transcription factors

11.
EMBO J. 2019 Mar 15;38(6). pii: e100240. doi: 10.15252/embj.2018100240. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

A cis-acting bidirectional transcription switch controls sexual dimorphism in the liverwort.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan.
2
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.
4
Faculty of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kindai University, Kinokawa, Wakayama, Japan.
5
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
6
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan tkohchi@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp k-nakaji@bs.naist.jp.
7
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara, Japan tkohchi@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp k-nakaji@bs.naist.jp.

Abstract

Plant life cycles alternate between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. While regulatory factors determining male and female sexual morphologies have been identified for sporophytic reproductive organs, such as stamens and pistils of angiosperms, those regulating sex-specific traits in the haploid gametophytes that produce male and female gametes and hence are central to plant sexual reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we identified a MYB-type transcription factor, MpFGMYB, as a key regulator of female sexual differentiation in the haploid-dominant dioicous liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha MpFGMYB is specifically expressed in females and its loss resulted in female-to-male sex conversion. Strikingly, MpFGMYB expression is suppressed in males by a cis-acting antisense gene SUF at the same locus, and loss-of-function suf mutations resulted in male-to-female sex conversion. Thus, the bidirectional transcription module at the MpFGMYB/SUF locus acts as a toggle between female and male sexual differentiation in M. polymorpha gametophytes. Arabidopsis thaliana MpFGMYB orthologs are known to be expressed in embryo sacs and promote their development. Thus, phylogenetically related MYB transcription factors regulate female gametophyte development across land plants.

KEYWORDS:

Marchantia polymorpha ; R2R3 MYB‐type transcription factor; antisense transcription; lncRNA; sexual differentiation

PMID:
30609993
DOI:
10.15252/embj.2018100240
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12.
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2019 Feb 13;18(2):400-412. doi: 10.1039/c8pp00421h.

Photosynthetically-active radiation, UV-A and UV-B, causes both common and specific damage and photoprotective responses in the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha subsp. ruderalis.

Author information

1
Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad de La Rioja, Madre de Dios 53, 26006 Logroño (La Rioja), Spain. encarnacion.nunez@unirioja.es.

Abstract

We studied the effects of different radiation treatments on the physiology and UV-absorbing compounds of the model liverwort Marchantia polymorpha subsp. ruderalis. Starting from gemmae, samples were exposed to five radiation treatments: low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), low PAR+ UV-A, low PAR + UV-B, low PAR + UV-A + UV-B, and high PAR. After 35 days, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II was similar between treatments, which suggested comparable photoinhibition and physiological vitality, also supported by results showing an unchanged chlorophyll a/b ratio and only slight changes in growth. However, the total contents of both chlorophylls and carotenoids decreased in the UV radiation treatments and, more strongly, in the high-PAR samples, suggesting mainly PAR-dependent damage to the photosynthetic pigments. The xanthophyll index (antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin)/(violaxanthin + antheraxanthin + zeaxanthin) was only increased in the high-PAR samples, indicating an increase in photoprotection through nonphotochemical dissipation of the excess energy. The sclerophylly index (the ratio between the thallus dry mass and surface area) was increased in the UV-B-exposed samples, suggesting a UV-induced structural protection. Only the UV-B-exposed samples showed DNA damage. Several apigenin and luteolin derivatives were found in the methanol-soluble vacuolar fraction of the liverwort and p-coumaric and ferulic acids in the methanol-insoluble cell wall-bound fraction. Most individual soluble compounds, the bulk level of soluble compounds, and chalcone synthase expression increased in UV-B-exposed samples, whereas individual insoluble compounds increased in the samples exposed to only PAR. Principal components analysis summarized these responses, showing the strong influence of both UV-B and PAR levels on the physiology and UV protection of the samples.

PMID:
30608105
DOI:
10.1039/c8pp00421h
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
Mol Plant. 2019 Feb 4;12(2):185-198. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2018.12.017. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

A Single JAZ Repressor Controls the Jasmonate Pathway in Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Molecular Genetics, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), 28049 Madrid, Spain.
2
Genomics Unit, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), 28049 Madrid, Spain.
3
Environmental Biology Department, University of Navarra, Navarre, Spain.
4
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
5
Department of Plant Molecular Genetics, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), 28049 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: rsolano@cnb.csic.es.

Abstract

JAZ proteins are negative regulators of jasmonate responses, acting both as repressors of transcription factors and as co-receptors of JA-Ile. The high redundancy of JAZ genes in angiosperms has hindered the characterization of a complete depletion of JAZ function. Moreover, the recent discovery that dn-OPDA is the jasmonate ligand in Marchantia polymorpha demonstrates that JA-Ile is not the sole COI1/JAZ ligand in land plants and highlights the importance of studying JAZ co-receptors in bryophytes. Here, we have exploited the low gene redundancy of the liverwort M. polymorpha to characterize the single MpJAZ in this early diverging plant lineage. We clarify the phylogenetic history of the TIFY family, demonstrate that MpJAZ is the ortholog of AtJAZ with a conserved function, and characterize its repressor activity of dn-OPDA responses. Our results show that, consistent with previous findings in Arabidopsis, MpJAZ represses jasmonates biosynthesis, senescence, and plant defenses, and promotes cell growth and reproductive fitness, highlighting the power of studies in Marchantia.

KEYWORDS:

Hormone signaling; Jasmonate repressors; Marchantia; evolution; gene redundancy

14.
New Phytol. 2019 Jan;221(2):1172. doi: 10.1111/nph.15533. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Corrigendum.

[No authors listed]

KEYWORDS:

Marchantia ; AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF); auxin; auxin signalling; class C ARF; land plant evolution; mir160

PMID:
30569608
DOI:
10.1111/nph.15533
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15.
Plant Physiol. 2019 Jan;179(1):317-328. doi: 10.1104/pp.18.00761. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Archetypal Roles of an Abscisic Acid Receptor in Drought and Sugar Responses in Liverworts.

Author information

1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.
2
Department of Bioresource Development, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan.
3
The NODAI Genome Research Center (NGRC), Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.
4
Graduate School of Bio-Applications and Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.
5
Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.
6
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan takezawa@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp.
7
Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.

Abstract

Abscisic acid (ABA) controls seed dormancy and stomatal closure through binding to the intracellular receptor Pyrabactin resistance1 (Pyr1)/Pyr1-like/regulatory components of ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCAR) in angiosperms. Genes encoding PYR/PYL/RCAR are thought to have arisen in the ancestor of embryophytes, but the roles of the genes in nonvascular plants have not been determined. In the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, ABA reduces growth and enhances desiccation tolerance through increasing accumulation of intracellular sugars and various transcripts such as those of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like genes. In this study, we analyzed a gene designated MpPYL1, which is closely related to PYR/PYL/RCAR of angiosperms, in transgenic liverworts. Transgenic lines overexpressing MpPYL1-GFP showed ABA-hypersensitive growth with enhanced desiccation tolerance, whereas Mppyl1 generated by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing showed ABA-insensitive growth with reduced desiccation tolerance. Transcriptome analysis indicated that MpPYL1 is a major regulator of abiotic stress-associated genes, including all 35 ABA-induced LEA-like genes. Furthermore, these transgenic plants showed altered responses to extracellular Suc, suggesting that ABA and PYR/PYL/RCAR function in sugar responses. The results presented here reveal an important role of PYR/PYL/RCAR in the ABA response, which was likely acquired in the common ancestor of land plants. The results also indicate the archetypal role of ABA and its receptor in sugar response and accumulation processes for vegetative desiccation tolerance in bryophytes.

PMID:
30442644
PMCID:
PMC6324230
[Available on 2020-01-01]
DOI:
10.1104/pp.18.00761
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16.
Plant Physiol Biochem. 2019 Feb;135:570-574. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Exploring the response of Marchantia polymorpha: Growth, morphology and chlorophyll content in the presence of anthracene.

Author information

1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), CONICET-UNCo, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro 8400, Argentina.
2
Institute of Water Research, University of Granada, Ramón y Cajal, Fray Luís 4, Granada 18071, Spain.
3
Instituto de Investigaciones en Recursos Naturales, Agroecología y Desarrollo Rural (IRNAD), Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro 8400, Argentina.
4
Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente (INIBIOMA), CONICET-UNCo, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro 8400, Argentina. Electronic address: jmscervino@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified as hazardous contaminants that are ubiquitous and persistent in aquatic environments, where bryophytes sensu lato (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) are frequently present. Marchantia polymorpha (Class Hepaticae; thalloid liverwort) is known to respond fast to changes in the environment; it accumulates toxic substances in its tissues due to the lack of vascular and radicular systems and a reduced or absent cuticle. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of increasing concentrations of anthracene (0, 50 100, 280 μM) on the germination of propagules, plant morphology and chlorophyll content index (CCI) in M. polymorpha under in vitro cultures. The results show that anthracene had no statistical effect on germination or propagula formation. However, plants exposed to anthracene for 30 days showed significantly lowered the content of chlorophyll (measured as CCI), irregular growth patterns and the induction of thalli asexual reproduction as evidenced by the production of multicellular viable propagules in gemmae cups. Results of epifluorescence microscopy also showed concomitant accumulation of anthracene in the cell walls. All of these distinctive morphological and physiological adaptive responses indicators, clearly suggest that M. polymorpha are capable of resisting high (coal tar) anthracene concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

Anthracene; Bioaccumulation; Bioindicator; Bryophytes; Liverwort; Phytotoxicity

PMID:
30429053
DOI:
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.11.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.
Curr Biol. 2018 Nov 19;28(22):3691-3699.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.018. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

An Evolutionarily Conserved Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway Regulates Dormancy in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
2
Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.
3
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.
4
Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.
5
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
6
Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
7
Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: rishi.bhalerao@slu.se.
8
Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan. Electronic address: sakata@nodai.ac.jp.
9
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia. Electronic address: john.bowman@monash.edu.

Abstract

Dormancy is a key process allowing land plants to adapt to changing conditions in the terrestrial habitat, allowing the cessation of growth in response to environmental or physiological cues, entrance into a temporary quiescent state, and subsequent reactivation of growth in more favorable environmental conditions [1-3]. Dormancy may be induced seasonally, sporadically (e.g., in response to drought), or developmentally (e.g., seeds and apical dominance). Asexual propagules, known as gemmae, derived via clonal reproduction in bryophytes, are often dormant until displaced from the parent plant. In the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, gemmae are produced within specialized receptacles, gemma cups, located on the dorsal side of the vegetative thallus [4]. Mature gemmae are detached from the parent plant but may remain in the cup, with gemma growth suppressed as long as the gemmae remain in the gemma cup and the parental plant is alive [5]. Following dispersal of gemmae from gemma cups by rain, the gemmae germinate in the presence of light and moisture, producing clonal offspring [6]. In land plants, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of dormancy and water balance [7]. Here, we demonstrate that ABA plays a central role in the control of gemma dormancy as transgenic M. polymorpha gemmae with reduced sensitivity to ABA fail to establish and/or maintain dormancy. Thus, the common ancestor of land plants used the ABA signaling module to regulate germination of progeny in response to environmental cues, with both gemmae and seeds being derived structures co-opting an ancestral response system.

KEYWORDS:

ABA; ABI1; ABI3; ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1; ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3; Marchantia polymorpha; abscisic acid; clonal reproduction; dormancy; gemma

18.
PLoS One. 2018 Oct 31;13(10):e0205117. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205117. eCollection 2018.

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing and its application to conditional genetic analysis in Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
R-GIRO, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan.
2
JST, PRESTO, Kawaguchi, Saitama, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
4
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
5
Faculty of Bioscience and Bioindustry, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.

Abstract

Marchantia polymorpha is one of the model species of basal land plants. Although CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing has already been demonstrated for this plant, the efficiency was too low to apply to functional analysis. In this study, we show the establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing vectors with high efficiency for both construction and genome editing. Codon optimization of Cas9 to Arabidopsis achieved over 70% genome editing efficiency at two loci tested. Systematic assessment revealed that guide sequences of 17 nt or shorter dramatically decreased this efficiency. We also demonstrated that a combinatorial use of this system and a floxed complementation construct enabled conditional analysis of a nearly essential gene. This study reports that simple, rapid, and efficient genome editing is feasible with the series of developed vectors.

Conflict of interest statement

This study was partly funded by a donation from Otsuka Pharmaceuticals to Tokushima University. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Nov;132:612-622. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.10.012. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Molecular identification of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases in lower plant Marchantia polymorpha.

Author information

1
Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore, 637616, Singapore.
2
Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore, 637616, Singapore. Electronic address: zhong.chen@nie.edu.sg.

Abstract

Histone is the core component of nucleosome and modification of amino acid residues on histone tails is one of the most pivotal epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Histone acetylation or deacetylation is carried out by two groups of proteins: histone acetyltransferases (HATs) or histone deacetylases (HDACs), and has been proven to be tightly linked to regulation of gene expression in animals and vascular plants. The biological functions of HATs and HDACs in non-flowering plants remain largely unknown. We found that there are seven MpHAT genes and twelve MpHDAC genes present in the Marchantia genome, and the comprehensive protein sequence analysis of the HAT and HDAC families was introduced to investigate their potential functions. On the basis of the functional domain analysis, eight MpHATs and twelve MpHDACs contain the conserved functional domains as the defining feature of each family. Phylogenetic trees of all families of MpHATs and MpHDACs along with their homologs from different plant and green algae species were constructed to illustrate evolutionary relationship of HAT and HDAC proteins. We found both SIR2 family and RPD3/HDA1 superfamily possess lower plant-specific proteins indicating the potential unknown functions of HATs and HDACs in Marchantia and other lower plant or algae species. Subcellular localization prediction suggests that MpHATs and MpHDACs are likely functioning in various organelles. Expression analysis shows that all MpHAT and MpHDAC genes are expressed in all tissues with differences at the transcriptional level. In addition, their expression patterns were altered in response to various treatments with plant hormones and environmental stress. We concluded that all MpHATs and MpHDACs are functional proteins in Marchantia and involved in various signaling pathways. Marchantia could have developed a complex histone acetylation epigenetic mechanism to regulate growth and development, as well as responses to environment.

KEYWORDS:

Histone acetylation; Histone acetyltransferase; Histone deacetylases; Histone deacetylation; Marchantia polymorpha

PMID:
30336381
DOI:
10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.10.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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20.
Front Plant Sci. 2018 Oct 1;9:1345. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01345. eCollection 2018.

Co-expression and Transcriptome Analysis of Marchantia polymorpha Transcription Factors Supports Class C ARFs as Independent Actors of an Ancient Auxin Regulatory Module.

Author information

1
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
2
Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Centro Científico Tecnológico CONICET Santa Fe, Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral - CONICET, Santa Fe, Argentina.

Abstract

We performed differential gene expression (DGE) and co-expression analyses with genes encoding components of hormonal signaling pathways and the ∼400 annotated transcription factors (TFs) of M. polymorpha across multiple developmental stages of the life cycle. We identify a putative auxin-related co-expression module that has significant overlap with transcripts induced in auxin-treated tissues. Consistent with phylogenetic and functional studies, the class C ARF, MpARF3, is not part of the auxin-related co-expression module and instead is associated with transcripts enriched in gamete-producing gametangiophores. We analyze the Mparf3 and MpmiR160 mutant transcriptomes in the context of coexpression to suggest that MpARF3 may antagonize the reproductive transition via activating the MpMIR11671 and MpMIR529c precursors whose encoded microRNAs target SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcripts of MpSPL1 and MpSPL2. Both MpSPL genes are part of the MpARF3 co-expression group corroborating their functional significance. We provide evidence of the independence of MpARF3 from the auxin-signaling module and provide new testable hypotheses on the role of auxin-related genes in patterning meristems and differentiation events in liverworts.

KEYWORDS:

Marchantia; auxin; auxin response factors; class C ARFs; co-expression; miR160; reproductive transitions; transcriptome

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