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Parasite. 2017;24:20. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2017021. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Attractiveness of black and white modified Shannon traps to phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Basin, an area of intense transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Federal Institute of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.
Management of Endemics, City Hall of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil.
Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil - Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.
Laboratory of Human Parasitology, Anhanguera-Uniderp University, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.


In the Amazon region the phlebotomine fauna is considered one of the most diverse in the world. The use of Shannon traps may provide information on the anthropophily of the species and improve the traps' performance in terms of diversity and quantity of insects collected when white and black colored traps are used together. This study sought to verify the attractiveness of the traps to the phlebotomine species of the Brazilian Amazon basin using Shannon traps under these conditions. The insects were collected using two Shannon traps installed side by side, one white and the other black, in a primary forest area of the municipality of Xapuri, Acre, Brazil. Samples were collected once a month during the period August 2013 to July 2015. A sample of females was dissected to test for natural infection by flagellates. A total of 6,309 (864 males and 5,445 females) specimens (36 species) were collected. Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai (42%), Nyssomyia shawi (36%), and Psychodopygus davisi (13%), together represented 90% of the insects collected. Nyssomyia shawi and Psychodopygus davisi were more attracted by the white color. Specimens of Nyssomyia shawi, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus were found naturally infected by flagellates in the mid and hindgut. This is the first study in Acre state using and comparing both black and white Shannon traps, demonstrating the richness, diversity, and anthropophilic behavior of the phlebotomine species and identifying proven and putative vectors of the etiological agents of leishmaniasis.

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