Format
Sort by
Items per page

Send to

Choose Destination

Best matches for asperger special education:

[Special support education for students with Asperger's syndrome]. Tsuge M et al. Nihon Rinsho. (2007)

Asperger syndrome and DSM-5: a dilemma for a college freshman. Galligan MG et al. J Dev Behav Pediatr. (2013)

Views on the diagnostic labels of autism and Asperger's disorder and the proposed changes in the DSM. Kite DM et al. J Autism Dev Disord. (2013)

Search results

Items: 83

1.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018 Apr 27;67(6):1-23. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1.

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

PERIOD COVERED:

2014.

DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, and describes characteristics of the population of children with ASD. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which made considerable changes to ASD diagnostic criteria. The change in ASD diagnostic criteria might influence ADDM ASD prevalence estimates; therefore, most (85%) of the records used to determine prevalence estimates based on DSM-IV-TR criteria underwent additional review under a newly operationalized surveillance case definition for ASD consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Children meeting this new surveillance case definition could qualify on the basis of one or both of the following criteria, as documented in abstracted comprehensive evaluations: 1) behaviors consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic features; and/or 2) an ASD diagnosis, whether based on DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Stratified comparisons of the number of children meeting either of these two case definitions also are reported.

RESULTS:

For 2014, the overall prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM sites was 16.8 per 1,000 (one in 59) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites, from 13.1-29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Males were four times more likely than females to be identified with ASD. Prevalence estimates were higher for non-Hispanic white (henceforth, white) children compared with non-Hispanic black (henceforth, black) children, and both groups were more likely to be identified with ASD compared with Hispanic children. Among the nine sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] <70), 25% were in the borderline range (IQ 71-85), and 44% had IQ scores in the average to above average range (i.e., IQ >85). The distribution of intellectual ability varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Although mention of developmental concerns by age 36 months was documented for 85% of children with ASD, only 42% had a comprehensive evaluation on record by age 36 months. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was 52 months and did not differ significantly by sex or race/ethnicity. For the targeted comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 results, the number and characteristics of children meeting the newly operationalized DSM-5 case definition for ASD were similar to those meeting the DSM-IV-TR case definition, with DSM-IV-TR case counts exceeding DSM-5 counts by less than 5% and approximately 86% overlap between the two case definitions (kappa = 0.85).

INTERPRETATION:

Findings from the ADDM Network, on the basis of 2014 data reported from 11 sites, provide updated population-based estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years in multiple communities in the United States. The overall ASD prevalence estimate of 16.8 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2014 is higher than previously reported estimates from the ADDM Network. Because the ADDM sites do not provide a representative sample of the entire United States, the combined prevalence estimates presented in this report cannot be generalized to all children aged 8 years in the United States. Consistent with reports from previous ADDM surveillance years, findings from 2014 were marked by variation in ASD prevalence when stratified by geographic area, sex, and level of intellectual ability. Differences in prevalence estimates between black and white children have diminished in most sites, but remained notable for Hispanic children. For 2014, results from application of the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 case definitions were similar, overall and when stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic subtype, or level of intellectual ability.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION:

Beginning with surveillance year 2016, the DSM-5 case definition will serve as the basis for ADDM estimates of ASD prevalence in future surveillance reports. Although the DSM-IV-TR case definition will eventually be phased out, it will be applied in a limited geographic area to offer additional data for comparison. Future analyses will examine trends in the continued use of DSM-IV-TR diagnoses, such as autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, and Asperger disorder in health and education records, documentation of symptoms consistent with DSM-5 terminology, and how these trends might influence estimates of ASD prevalence over time. The latest findings from the ADDM Network provide evidence that the prevalence of ASD is higher than previously reported estimates and continues to vary among certain racial/ethnic groups and communities. With prevalence of ASD ranging from 13.1 to 29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in different communities throughout the United States, the need for behavioral, educational, residential, and occupational services remains high, as does the need for increased research on both genetic and nongenetic risk factors for ASD.

2.
Front Psychol. 2017 Aug 22;8:1422. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01422. eCollection 2017.

Understanding the Self in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review of Literature.

Author information

1
Department of Counseling, Psychology and Special Education, School of Education, Duquesne University, PittsburghPA, United States.
2
Director of International Students Affairs, Vincennes University, VincennesIN, United States.

Abstract

When the system of self is explored in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), it is important to measure it via both their own perceptions of the self and their understanding of others' perceptions on themselves at a multidimensional level. This paper reviews existing research in this area using a three-dimension approach. Researchers have found that impairments in the self-system are usually correlated with these individuals' social and cognitive functioning levels: high functioning individuals with ASD who have higher IQ are found to have better awareness of their limitations in social and communication domains than those with lower IQ. Many researchers believe that there are impairments in the psychological (but not physical) self in individuals with ASD, such as theory of mind deficits due to social and communicative impairments. On the other hand, some researchers argue that individuals with ASD have selective rather than global impairments in the self. In other words, the impairment usually lies in a specific aspect of functioning in individuals with ASD. Insights from the review of existing literature on this topic may be able to shed some lights on the development of effective intervention programs to improve social communication deficits in this population.

KEYWORDS:

Asperger syndrome; adolescence; high-functioning autism; self-awareness; social communication deficits; the self; theory of mind deficit

Publication type

Publication type

3.
Eur J Public Health. 2017 Feb 1;27(1):101-110. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw206.

European studies on prevalence and risk of autism spectrum disorders according to immigrant status-a review.

Author information

1
Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Jaracza 1, Warszawa 00-378, Poland.
2
The State Diagnostic and Counselling Centre, Digranesvegur 5, 200 Kópavogur, Iceland.
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
4
Department of Special Education, Centre for Cognitive and Motor Disabilities, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
5
Aarhus University Hospital, Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Denmark.
6
INICO, Faculty of Education, University of Salamanca, Spain.
7
Rare Diseases Research Insititute, National Institue of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
8
Department of Child Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
9
PEDEGO Research Unit, Child Psychiatry, University of Oulu, Finland.

Abstract

Background:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), once considered to be rare, are now reaching prevalence estimates of 1% and higher. Studies conducted in North America indicate large racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of ASDs. Others show, that immigrant children have similar prevalence rates of ASDs as native children, although they are diagnosed later compared with native children. In relation to a EU funded network action, Enhancing the Scientific Study of Early Autism, it was considered important to review the literature on this subject.

Method:

A comprehensive literature search was undertaken for original articles reporting on prevalence and risk for ASD in Europe among immigrants and ethnic minorities and data across studies were compared.

Results:

Seventeen studies conducted in Europe concerning immigrants and ethnic minorities were found. Fifteen studies suggest a higher prevalence rate of ASDs among children of immigrants in comparison to native children (RR = 1.02-1.74; OR = 0.6-10.5). One study revealed higher prevalence of autism (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.6-3.1) and lower prevalence of Asperger syndrome in immigrants (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-0.97). One study showed a lower prevalence of Asperger syndrome in immigrants (aOR = 0.1, 95% CI 0.01-0.5). The majority of those analyses involved immigrants from outside Europe, e.g. from Africa and South America.

Conclusion:

After analysing the results of studies conducted in Europe, it is unclear if higher prevalence estimates of ASDs among immigrants in this region reflect true differences, especially considering many potential confounding factors, e.g. genetic, biological, environmental and cultural. Considering the number of people migrating within Europe there is a substantial need to study further the prevalence of ASDs in immigrant groups.

PMID:
28013245
DOI:
10.1093/eurpub/ckw206
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
4.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2016 Sep;46(9):3166-76. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-2830-5.

Brief Report: A Pilot Study of the Use of a Virtual Reality Headset in Autism Populations.

Author information

1
Department of Arts and Cultural Industries, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. nigel.newbutt@uwe.ac.uk.
2
Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Abstract

The application of virtual reality technologies (VRTs) for users with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied for decades. However, a gap remains in our understanding surrounding VRT head-mounted displays (HMDs). As newly designed HMDs have become commercially available (in this study the Oculus Rift™) the need to investigate newer devices is immediate. This study explored willingness, acceptance, sense of presence and immersion of ASD participants. Results revealed that all 29 participants (mean age = 32; 33 % with IQ < 70) were willing to wear the HMD. The majority of the participants reported an enjoyable experience, high levels of 'presence', and were likely to use HMDs again. IQ was found to be independent of the willingness to use HMDs and related VRT immersion experience.

KEYWORDS:

Autism spectrum disorder; Head-mounted display; Oculus Rift™; Virtual reality technology

PMID:
27272115
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-016-2830-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
5.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016 Apr 1;65(3):1-23. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.ss6503a1.

Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

Author information

1
Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC.

Erratum in

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

PERIOD COVERED:

2012.

DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known comprehensive evaluation was performed, the proportion of children with a previous ASD diagnosis, the specific type of ASD diagnosis, and any special education eligibility classification.

RESULTS:

For 2012, the combined estimated prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM Network sites was 14.6 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Estimated prevalence was significantly higher among boys aged 8 years (23.6 per 1,000) than among girls aged 8 years (5.3 per 1,000). Estimated ASD prevalence was significantly higher among non-Hispanic white children aged 8 years (15.5 per 1,000) compared with non-Hispanic black children (13.2 per 1,000), and Hispanic (10.1 per 1,000) children aged 8 years. Estimated prevalence varied widely among the 11 ADDM Network sites, ranging from 8.2 per 1,000 children aged 8 years (in the area of the Maryland site where only health care records were reviewed) to 24.6 per 1,000 children aged 8 years (in New Jersey, where both education and health care records were reviewed). Estimated prevalence was higher in surveillance sites where education records and health records were reviewed compared with sites where health records only were reviewed (17.1 per 1,000 and 10.7 per 1,000 children aged 8 years, respectively; p<0.05). Among children identified with ASD by the ADDM Network, 82% had a previous ASD diagnosis or educational classification; this did not vary by sex or between non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black children. A lower percentage of Hispanic children (78%) had a previous ASD diagnosis or classification compared with non-Hispanic white children (82%) and with non-Hispanic black children (84%). The median age at earliest known comprehensive evaluation was 40 months, and 43% of children had received an earliest known comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months. The percentage of children with an earliest known comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months was similar for boys and girls, but was higher for non-Hispanic white children (45%) compared with non-Hispanic black children (40%) and Hispanic children (39%).

INTERPRETATION:

Overall estimated ASD prevalence was 14.6 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in the ADDM Network sites in 2012. The higher estimated prevalence among sites that reviewed both education and health records suggests the role of special education systems in providing comprehensive evaluations and services to children with developmental disabilities. Disparities by race/ethnicity in estimated ASD prevalence, particularly for Hispanic children, as well as disparities in the age of earliest comprehensive evaluation and presence of a previous ASD diagnosis or classification, suggest that access to treatment and services might be lacking or delayed for some children.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION:

The ADDM Network will continue to monitor the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years living in selected sites across the United States. Recommendations from the ADDM Network include enhancing strategies to 1) lower the age of first evaluation of ASD by community providers in accordance with the Healthy People 2020 goal that children with ASD are evaluated by age 36 months and begin receiving community-based support and services by age 48 months; 2) reduce disparities by race/ethnicity in identified ASD prevalence, the age of first comprehensive evaluation, and presence of a previous ASD diagnosis or classification; and 3) assess the effect on ASD prevalence of the revised ASD diagnostic criteria published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

PMID:
27031587
DOI:
10.15585/mmwr.ss6503a1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
6.
Encephale. 2015 Dec;41(6):499-506. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2015.07.005. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

[Schooling of patients exhibiting Autism Spectrum Disorders without mental retardation].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Centre hospitalier Alpes Isère, 38120 Saint-Égrève, France; Université Joseph-Fourier, 38000 Grenoble, France.
2
Centre expert asperger, Cadipa, centre hospitalier Alpes-Isère, 3, rue de la Gare, 38120 Saint-Égrève, France.
3
Comité de soutien à la recherche, centre hospitalier Alpes-Isère, 3, rue de la Gare, 38120 Saint-Égrève, France. Electronic address: apiero@ch-alpes-isere.fr.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Autism Spectrum Disorders belong to Pervasive Development Disorders. Although access to education is recommended by the French National High Authority for Health (HAS), the practice remains limited and the reasons for the low education rate of these children have still not been sufficiently explored in the literature.

OBJECTIVE:

The main objective of this study was to analyze the links between Autism Spectrum Disorder without mental retardation, psychiatric comorbidity and education. The secondary objective was to analyze the cognitive and contextual factors that could limit educational inclusion.

METHOD:

Eighty-three autistic patients (3-18years old; 73 males and 10 females) with childhood autism, atypical autism or Asperger's syndrome (criteria from the International Classification of Diseases-10) without mental retardation and in education were assessed at the Alpine Centre for Early Diagnosis of Autism. The sample included 45 subjects with childhood autism, 12 subjects with atypical autism and 26 subjects with Asperger's syndrome. The diagnosis was based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R), in accordance with the recommendations of the HAS, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV).

RESULTS:

Our results showed that childhood autism and atypical autism were mainly found in nursery and primary school, whereas Asperger's syndrome was mainly found in secondary school (Chi(2)=18.23; df=6; P<.006). Individuals with childhood autism and atypical autism were more likely to receive the support of a special educational assistant (Chi(2)=15.61; df=2; P<.000) and underwent a higher number of consultations and treatment episodes than those with Asperger's syndrome (Chi(2)=27.83; df=14; P<.015). The cognitive profiles obtained with the WISC-IV also differed: the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) were higher for Asperger's syndrome than for childhood autism and atypical autism (respectively, F=23.11, P<.000; df=2; partial η(2)=.576 and F=8.06, P<.001; df=2; partial η(2)=.357). Linear regression showed that the VCI and Processing Speed Index (PSI) were inversely correlated to the number of hours spent with a special educational assistant: the lower these indexes, the greater the amount of time spent with a special educational assistant. No link was found between psychiatric comorbidity, type of psychological and psychiatric treatment, and education.

DISCUSSION:

The use of special educational assistants seems to be linked to the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and neuropsychological functioning, as assessed by WISC-IV, along a continuum that ranges from childhood autism (more needs and deficits) to atypical autism to Asperger's syndrome. The Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and the Processing Speed Index (PSI) could be used to evaluate the number of hours of support needed by children and to better target the deficits and specific needs of children without mental retardation who are in education. A study on a larger scale could help to more closely address the question of the cognitive abilities of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder without mental retardation, so as to better help them in their education.

KEYWORDS:

Asperger's syndrome; Autism; Autisme; Education; Mental retardation; Retard mental; School; Scolarité; Spectre autistique; Troubles envahissants du développement

PMID:
26358485
DOI:
10.1016/j.encep.2015.07.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Masson (France)
7.
Mol Autism. 2015 Jun 13;6:36. doi: 10.1186/s13229-015-0019-y. eCollection 2015.

Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

Author information

1
Autism Science Foundation, 28 W 39th Street #502, New York, NY 10018 USA ; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, 41B Gordon Road, Piscataway, 08854 New Brunswick, NJ USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Ave, LangPorter, 94143 San Francisco, CA USA.
3
William Greenleaf Eliot Division of Child Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8134, 63110 St. Louis, MO USA.
4
Autism Speaks, 1 E 33rd St 4th Floor, New York, NY 10016 USA.
5
Initiative for Girls and Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Yale Child Study Center, PO Box 207900, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, CT 06520-7900 USA.
6
Global and Regional Asperger, Syndrome Partnership, Inc., 419 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10003 USA.
7
Department of Psychology and Pediatrics, University of Miami, Flipse Building, P.O. Box 249229, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751 USA.
8
Child Neuroscience Laboratory, Yale Child Study Center, PO Box 207900, 230 South Frontage Road, New Haven, CT 06520-7900 USA.
9
UCSF School of Medicine, Psychiatry, 1550 4th St Bldg 19B, San Francisco, CA 94158 USA.
10
Autism Science Foundation, 28 W 39th Street #502, New York, NY 10018 USA.
11
Pediatrics and Special Education, Vanderbilt Kennedy Center Investigator, PMB 40-230 Appleton Pl., Nashville, TN 37203 USA.
12
The Hospital for Sick Children and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON M6J 1H4 Canada ; Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON M6J 1H4 Canada.

Abstract

One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

KEYWORDS:

Autism; Diagnosis; Female; Protection; Research; Symposium

8.
Autism. 2016 Feb;20(2):183-95. doi: 10.1177/1362361315574582. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Support for learning goes beyond academic support: Voices of students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Author information

1
Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden vedrana.bolic@liu.se.
2
Stockholm University, Sweden.
3
Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Sweden.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 13 young adults aged between 20 and 29 years. A qualitative analysis, based on interpreting people's experiences, was conducted by grouping and searching for patterns in data. The findings indicate that the participants experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional conditions, all of which could influence learning. Support for learning included small groups, individualized teaching methods, teachers who cared, and practical and emotional support. These clusters together confirm the overall understanding that support for learning aligns academic and psychosocial support. In conclusion, academic support combined with psychosocial support at school seems to be crucial for learning among students with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

KEYWORDS:

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder; autism spectrum disorders; education; educational provision; psychosocial support; qualitative research; services; special needs students

PMID:
25911093
DOI:
10.1177/1362361315574582
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
9.
Psychiatr Prax. 2016 Jan;43(1):38-44. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1387494. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

[Well Educated Unemployed--On Education, Employment and Comorbidities in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders in Germany].

[Article in German]

Author information

1
Zentrum für psychische Erkrankungen, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Based on clinical experience there is a discrepancy between the educational records and vocational performance in patients with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

METHOD:

In order to assess psychosocial and vocational specificities of adult ASD patients we analyzed the demographic and hospital data of consecutively diagnosed patients employing descriptive statistics.

RESULTS:

We were able to include 255 patients into our sample who were consecutively diagnosed between October 2009 and October 2011. The gender ratio was 162:93 in favor of male patients. The educational records of our patient sample was comparatively good [50 % highest level of German schooling system (allgemeine Hochschulreife), 39 % university degree], however, the vocational records were poor with 58 % of our patients being unemployed. The psychiatric comorbidity was high, 57 % of the patients suffered from depression.

CONCLUSION:

There is a high need for special support programs for adult high functioning ASD patients focusing on adaptive vocational skills to avoid unemployment and secondary psychiatric problems.

PMID:
25891885
DOI:
10.1055/s-0034-1387494
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York
10.
Neuroscience. 2015 Apr 30;292:129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.02.030. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Serotonin transporter polymorphism modulates neural correlates of real-life joint action. An investigation with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address: Herrmann_M@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de.
2
Department of Psychology, Regensburg University, Regensburg, Germany.
3
Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
5
Department of Rehabilitation and Special Education, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
6
Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
7
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Abstract

A functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) within the serotonin transporter gene (SERT) has been associated with personality dimensions such as neuroticism, with emotional reactivity to negative events, and with an increased risk of affective disorders. More specifically, the short (S) allele of 5-HTTLPR has been linked to increased amygdala activity and has been identified as a risk allele for depressive disorders. Recently, Homberg and Lesch (2011) urged for a conceptual change in the current deficit-oriented connotation of the 5-HTTLPR S-allele and argued that the S-allele could be considered adaptive in certain contexts. They postulated that S-allele carriers show hypervigilant behavior in social situations and should thus show increased social conformity. Therefore, we tested whether 5-HTTLPR modulates the neural correlates of real-life social joint action through functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thirty participants, homozygote for 5-HTTLPR, were measured and analyzed while they were involved in a previously published joint-action paradigm, which reliably leads to an activation of the left parietal cortex. We found that homozygote S-allele carriers showed increased inferior parietal lobe activation, compared to the LL-allele carriers for the contrast "joint action greater solo action". Therefore, our results provide evidence for beneficial effects of the S-allele on the neural correlates of social interactions.

KEYWORDS:

5-HTTLPR; NIRS; joint-action

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;53(5):500-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.021. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

A comparison of DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder and DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder prevalence in an epidemiologic sample.

Author information

1
Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, and Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
2
Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR.
3
Korea Institute for Children's Social Development ("Rudolph"), Seoul, South Korea.
4
University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
5
Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.
6
Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea, and the University of Illinois, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: bennett.leventhal@nki.rfmh.org.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Changes in autism diagnostic criteria found in DSM-5 may affect autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence, research findings, diagnostic processes, and eligibility for clinical and other services. Using our published, total-population Korean prevalence data, we compute DSM-5 ASD and social communication disorder (SCD) prevalence and compare them with DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) prevalence estimates. We also describe individuals previously diagnosed with DSM-IV PDD when diagnoses change with DSM-5 criteria.

METHOD:

The target population was all children from 7 to 12 years of age in a South Korean community (N = 55,266), those in regular and special education schools, and a disability registry. We used the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire for systematic, multi-informant screening. Parents of screen-positive children were offered comprehensive assessments using standardized diagnostic procedures, including the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Best-estimate clinical diagnoses were made using DSM-IV PDD and DSM-5 ASD and SCD criteria.

RESULTS:

DSM-5 ASD estimated prevalence was 2.20% (95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.64). Combined DSM-5 ASD and SCD prevalence was virtually the same as DSM-IV PDD prevalence (2.64%). Most children with autistic disorder (99%), Asperger disorder (92%), and PDD-NOS (63%) met DSM-5 ASD criteria, whereas 1%, 8%, and 32%, respectively, met SCD criteria. All remaining children (2%) had other psychopathology, principally attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder.

CONCLUSION:

Our findings suggest that most individuals with a prior DSM-IV PDD meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD. PDD, ASD or SCD; extant diagnostic criteria identify a large, clinically meaningful group of individuals and families who require evidence-based services.

KEYWORDS:

ASD; DSM-5; DSM-IV; SCD; prevalence

Comment in

PMID:
24745950
PMCID:
PMC4058782
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaac.2013.12.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
12.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014 Mar 28;63(2):1-21.

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

PERIOD COVERED:

2010.

DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described.

RESULTS:

For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD. Non-Hispanic white children were approximately 30% more likely to be identified with ASD than non-Hispanic black children and were almost 50% more likely to be identified with ASD than Hispanic children. Among the seven sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified as having IQ scores in the range of intellectual disability (IQ ≤70), 23% in the borderline range (IQ = 71-85), and 46% in the average or above average range of intellectual ability (IQ >85). The proportion of children classified in the range of intellectual disability differed by race/ethnicity. Approximately 48% of non-Hispanic black children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability compared with 38% of Hispanic children and 25% of non-Hispanic white children. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was 53 months and did not differ significantly by sex or race/ethnicity.

INTERPRETATION:

These findings from CDC's ADDM Network, which are based on 2010 data reported from 11 sites, provide updated population-based estimates of the prevalence of ASD in multiple communities in the United States. Because the ADDM Network sites do not provide a representative sample of the entire United States, the combined prevalence estimates presented in this report cannot be generalized to all children aged 8 years in the United States population. Consistent with previous reports from the ADDM Network, findings from the 2010 surveillance year were marked by significant variations in ASD prevalence by geographic area, sex, race/ethnicity, and level of intellectual ability. The extent to which this variation might be attributable to diagnostic practices, underrecognition of ASD symptoms in some racial/ethnic groups, socioeconomic disparities in access to services, and regional differences in clinical or school-based practices that might influence the findings in this report is unclear.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION:

ADDM Network investigators will continue to monitor the prevalence of ASD in select communities, with a focus on exploring changes within these communities that might affect both the observed prevalence of ASD and population-based characteristics of children identified with ASD. Although ASD is sometimes diagnosed by 2 years of age, the median age of the first ASD diagnosis remains older than age 4 years in the ADDM Network communities. Recommendations from the ADDM Network include enhancing strategies to address the need for 1) standardized, widely adopted measures to document ASD severity and functional limitations associated with ASD diagnosis; 2) improved recognition and documentation of symptoms of ASD, particularly among both boys and girls, children without intellectual disability, and children in all racial/ethnic groups; and 3) decreasing the age when children receive their first evaluation for and a diagnosis of ASD and are enrolled in community-based support systems.

PMID:
24670961
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
13.
Child Neuropsychol. 2014;20(6):641-61. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2013.854763. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Smaller splenium in children with nonverbal learning disability compared to controls, high-functioning autism and ADHD.

Author information

1
a Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education , Michigan State University , East Lansing , MI 48824 USA.

Abstract

The current study investigated morphological differences in the corpus callosum in children ages 8 to 18 years old with nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 19), high-functioning autism (HFA; n = 23), predominantly inattentive ADHD (ADHD:PI; n = 23), and combined type ADHD (ADHD:C; n = 25), as well as those demonstrating typical development (n = 57). Midsagittal area of the corpus callosum and five midsagittal anterior-to-posterior corpus callosum segments were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Controlling for midsagittal brain area and age, no group differences were found for total corpus callosum area. This finding indicates that higher functioning children on the autistic spectrum do not have smaller corpus callosi as has been found in previous research with heterogeneous samples. Following segmentation of the corpus callosum, the NLD group was observed to have significantly smaller splenia compared to all other groups. Smaller splenia in the NLD group was associated with lower WASI PIQ scores but not WASI VIQ scores. Children with HFA were observed to have larger midbody areas than children with NLD and neurotypically developing children. Children with HFA and NLD demonstrated behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity similar to the ADHD groups indicating that corpus callosum differences seen in the NLD and HFA groups are not related to these behaviors.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Asperger; Corpus callosum; High functioning autism; MRI; Nonverbal learning disorder; Splenium

PMID:
24215424
DOI:
10.1080/09297049.2013.854763
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Taylor & Francis
14.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013 Sep;34(7):529-32. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a399a6.

Asperger syndrome and DSM-5: a dilemma for a college freshman.

Author information

1
*Arts, Humanities & Medicine Program; †Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; ‡Division of Neurodevelopmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY; §Office of Accessible Education & Schwab Learning Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; and ¶Division of Academic General Pediatrics, Developmental Pediatrics and Community Health, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Abstract

Angela is an 18-year-old college freshman who made an appointment with her pediatrician because of academic and social difficulties at college. She was diagnosed with Asperger disorder at age 6 based on difficulties relating to adults and peers, perseverative patterns of interest, and normal language development.She received special education services in middle school to help follow directions and complete assignments. She reports feeling very isolated during this time. In freshman year of high school, she insisted on discontinuing special education and managed with weekly private individual psychotherapy.In sophomore year, Angela learned strategies to get additional help from her teachers about assignments, and her grades improved. Socially, she formed a close friendship with a classmate who was also on the autistic spectrum, and she found a group of friends through this individual. As a senior with an upward grade trajectory and good SAT scores, she was admitted to a competitive 4-year college. In a precollege consult 6 months ago, she was anxious about fitting in.Angela began college classes without accommodations, but she now describes a challenging semester. She has not made many friends. She finds her courses difficult and does not fully understand assignments. She believes her peers dislike her. She thinks she would benefit from receiving note-taking and other services and asks you to document her disability for the college so that she might obtain accommodations.You point out that the DSM-5 eliminates the Asperger category. Angela is concerned. She does not believe that her profile is consistent with autism spectrum disorder, and she fears that being labeled as autistic will be prejudicial at school. Yet she is worried about retaining eligibility for services on the basis of a disability. How do you counsel her?

PMID:
24042084
DOI:
10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182a399a6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Wolters Kluwer
15.
Int J Rehabil Res. 2013 Dec;36(4):330-8. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0b013e328362491c.

Students with disabilities in higher education - perceptions of support needs and received support: a pilot study.

Author information

1
aCHILD Research Environment, School of Education and Communication bCHILD Research Environment, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Abstract

Students with disabilities in higher education frequently need support to succeed in their studies. Perceived problems in managing studies and everyday life may be the same for students with different disabilities, although the reasons for support may vary between them. In this pilot study, a questionnaire aimed to survey everyday functioning in students with disabilities was tested. Thirty-four students with Asperger syndrome, motor disabilities or deafness/hearing impairments were asked 55 close-ended and open-ended questions on participation restrictions and available support programmes. One aim of this study was to test the usefulness of the questionnaire, and another aim was to identify students' perceptions of their everyday student life and the support they are offered, with a special focus on comparing perceptions of needs and support between students with Asperger syndrome and other student groups. The results indicate the need to plan recruitment of participants carefully and that the questionnaire was useful. The descriptive analyses indicated that the groups primarily reported the same difficulties; however, the open-ended comments indicated that the reasons for the problems vary between the groups. It indicates that Likert-type responses to questions concerning perceived difficulties need to be supplemented by open-ended questions on the perceived reasons to problems.

PMID:
23722568
DOI:
10.1097/MRR.0b013e328362491c
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Wolters Kluwer
16.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Jul;43(7):1692-700. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1718-2.

Views on the diagnostic labels of autism and Asperger's disorder and the proposed changes in the DSM.

Author information

1
School of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia. d.kite@ozemail.com.au

Abstract

With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes. Analysis of the 547 participant responses confirmed an increase stigma is associated with the label of autism, with autism considered to be a more severe than the condition of Asperger's disorder. Approximately half of the participants reported being opposed to proposed diagnostic changes and of the remaining participants, 22% supported the proposed changes and 28% expressed uncertainty.

PMID:
23143130
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-012-1718-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
17.
Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012 Dec;14(6):739-47. doi: 10.1007/s11920-012-0327-2.

What the DSM-5 portends for research, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, 21 Bloomingdale Road, White Plains, NY 10605, USA. sam2056@med.cornell.edu

Abstract

In May 2013 the APA will release DSM-5, which will restructure the diagnostic classification for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) into a single category. The proposed changes in DSM-5 aim to better reflect the current state of research by consistently identifying the core features in social/communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that are specific to ASDs. This review describes the empirical and theoretical bases of research in the nosology of ASDs, given the impending shift in DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. General issues in diagnosis and prevalence are described, with differences between DSM-IV and DSM-5 highlighted. To address concerns about the application of the proposed DSM-5 criteria, the current literature assessing the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed DSM-5 criteria is reviewed. Last, we discuss the implications of the changes in DSM-5 for the treatment of ASDs and recommend areas for future research.

PMID:
22991100
DOI:
10.1007/s11920-012-0327-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
18.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012 Mar 30;61(3):1-19.

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008.

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Symptoms typically are apparent before age 3 years. The complex nature of these disorders, coupled with a lack of biologic markers for diagnosis and changes in clinical definitions over time, creates challenges in monitoring the prevalence of ASDs. Accurate reporting of data is essential to understand the prevalence of ASDs in the population and can help direct research.

PERIOD COVERED:

2008.

DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM:

The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that estimates the prevalence of ASDs and describes other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 14 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM does not rely on professional or family reporting of an existing ASD diagnosis or classification to ascertain case status. Instead, information is obtained from children's evaluation records to determine the presence of ASD symptoms at any time from birth through the end of the year when the child reaches age 8 years. ADDM focuses on children aged 8 years because a baseline study conducted by CDC demonstrated that this is the age of identified peak prevalence. A child is included as meeting the surveillance case definition for an ASD if he or she displays behaviors (as described on a comprehensive evaluation completed by a qualified professional) consistent with the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: Autistic Disorder; Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS, including Atypical Autism); or Asperger Disorder. The first phase of the ADDM methodology involves screening and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations completed by professional providers at multiple data sources in the community. Multiple data sources are included, ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, many ADDM sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted evaluations are reviewed by trained clinicians to determine ASD case status. Because the case definition and surveillance methods have remained consistent across all ADDM surveillance years to date, comparisons to results for earlier surveillance years can be made. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates from the 2008 surveillance year, representing 14 ADDM areas in the United States. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASDs are described, as well as detailed comparisons of the 2008 surveillance year findings with those for the 2002 and 2006 surveillance years.

RESULTS:

For 2008, the overall estimated prevalence of ASDs among the 14 ADDM sites was 11.3 per 1,000 (one in 88) children aged 8 years who were living in these communities during 2008. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied widely across all sites (range: 4.8-21.2 per 1,000 children aged 8 years). ASD prevalence estimates also varied widely by sex and by racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 54 boys and one in 252 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASDs. Comparison of 2008 findings with those for earlier surveillance years indicated an increase in estimated ASD prevalence of 23% when the 2008 data were compared with the data for 2006 (from 9.0 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2006 to 11.0 in 2008 for the 11 sites that provided data for both surveillance years) and an estimated increase of 78% when the 2008 data were compared with the data for 2002 (from 6.4 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2002 to 11.4 in 2008 for the 13 sites that provided data for both surveillance years). Because the ADDM Network sites do not make up a nationally representative sample, these combined prevalence estimates should not be generalized to the United States as a whole.

INTERPRETATION:

These data confirm that the estimated prevalence of ASDs identified in the ADDM network surveillance populations continues to increase. The extent to which these increases reflect better case ascertainment as a result of increases in awareness and access to services or true increases in prevalence of ASD symptoms is not known. ASDs continue to be an important public health concern in the United States, underscoring the need for continued resources to identify potential risk factors and to provide essential supports for persons with ASDs and their families.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION:

Given substantial increases in ASD prevalence estimates over a relatively short period, overall and within various subgroups of the population, continued monitoring is needed to quantify and understand these patterns. With 5 biennial surveillance years completed in the past decade, the ADDM Network continues to monitor prevalence and characteristics of ASDs and other developmental disabilities for the 2010 surveillance year. Further work is needed to evaluate multiple factors contributing to increases in estimated ASD prevalence over time. ADDM Network investigators continue to explore these factors, with a focus on understanding disparities in the identification of ASDs among certain subgroups and on how these disparities have contributed to changes in the estimated prevalence of ASDs. CDC is partnering with other federal and private partners in a coordinated response to identify risk factors for ASDs and to meet the needs of persons with ASDs and their families.

PMID:
22456193
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
19.
J Intellect Disabil Res. 2013 Aug;57(8):766-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2011.01533.x. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Determinants of adult functional outcome in adolescents receiving special educational assistance.

Author information

1
Division of Psychiatry, the University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance.

METHODS:

A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood Behaviour Checklist - CBCL) and autistic traits (using the Social Communication Questionnaire - SCQ) during adolescence and were followed up 6 years later (at a mean age of 22 years) using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) to assess functional outcome.

RESULTS:

A significant positive relationship was found between CBCL score and WHO-DAS II score (β = 0.511, P = 0.001). IQ score showed a negative relationship with total WHO-DAS II score (β = -0.247, P = 0.04). SCQ score was not found to significantly influence total WHO-DAS II score (β = -0.028, P = 0.84).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the role of global intellectual ability is important, these results stress the highly predictive value of adolescent behaviours on functional outcomes in adult life among young adults receiving special educational assistance.

KEYWORDS:

autism; behavioural measurement methods; behavioural phenotypes; cognitive behaviour; intellectual disability; learning disability

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Wiley
20.
Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2012 Winter;2(3):207-11. doi: 10.1353/nib.2012.0058.

Growing up with autism: challenges and opportunities of parenting young adult children with autism spectrum disorders.

Comment on

PMID:
24406889
DOI:
10.1353/nib.2012.0058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
21.
Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2012 Winter;2(3):199-205. doi: 10.1353/nib.2012.0057.

Parenting adults with ASD: lessons for researchers and clinicians.

Comment on

PMID:
24406888
DOI:
10.1353/nib.2012.0057
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
22.
Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2012 Winter;2(3):189-97. doi: 10.1353/nib.2012.0056.

Resilience and the narratives of parents of adults with autism spectrum disorders.

Comment on

PMID:
24406887
DOI:
10.1353/nib.2012.0056
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
23.
Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2012 Winter;2(3):183-7. doi: 10.1353/nib.2012.0055.

Yet life keeps coming.

Comment on

PMID:
24406886
DOI:
10.1353/nib.2012.0055
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
25.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Mar;42(3):354-66. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1249-2.

Social competence intervention for elementary students with Aspergers syndrome and high functioning autism.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. stichterj@missouri.edu

Abstract

Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS present unique challenges relating to peers, interpreting complex contextual cues, and transitioning across settings. A paucity of social interventions exist that target elementary-age children with HFA/AS and their combination of core social competence deficit areas: theory of mind (ToM), emotional recognition, and executive functioning. The current study expanded on the Social Competence Intervention (for adolescents; SCI-A), as detailed in Stichter et al. (J Autism Dev Disorders 40:1067-1079, 2010), by adjusting the curriculum to meet the needs of an elementary population. Results indicate significant improvements on direct assessments measuring theory of mind and problem solving, and parent perceptions of overall social abilities and executive functioning for 20 students, aged 6-10, with HFA/AS. The elementary SCI program appears promising, however, additional replications are necessary including expansion to school settings.

PMID:
21503797
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-011-1249-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
26.
Autism. 2011 May;15(3):355-72. doi: 10.1177/1362361310365070. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Australia. kate@psy.uq.edu.au

Abstract

Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict bullying for such children and also to examine a new measure, the Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). One hundred and thirty three parents of children with AS completed the SVS and of these 92 parents completed both the SVS and questionnaires measuring anxiety, anger, behaviour problems, social skills and bullying. Regression analyses revealed that these variables together strongly predicted bullying, but that social vulnerability was the strongest predictor. Test-re-test and internal consistency analyses of the SVS demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analyses revealed two sub-scales: gullibility and credulity. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for future research discussed.

PMID:
21430018
DOI:
10.1177/1362361310365070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
27.
J Music Ther. 2011 Winter;48(4):440-62.

The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

Author information

1
The University of Kentucky, USA.

Abstract

Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.

PMID:
22506299
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
28.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Nov-Dec;31(9):720-2. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181fa6b17.

"Different is nice, but it sure isn't easy": differentiating the spectrum of autism from the spectrum of normalcy.

Author information

1
Southern Jamaica Plain Health Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

Brian is a 15-year-old boy who has been just changed to your practice because of a change in insurance plans. When taking the social history, his parents note that he has "the hardest time relating to other kids." Sometimes he will be in the middle of a conversation with a friend and then discuss tangential topics. His father reports that Brian "...has always been an easy target. He has always been sort of bigger than other kids, but being bigger than other kids, he has a hard time standing up for himself." He seems to expect to be picked on in any new social situation. When Brian likes something, he really goes after it with a passion; for example, he is very interested in knowing all about the dynasties in China. His interests are dinosaurs and anime. He is described as "An all-or-nothing type kid" when it comes to his interests. If his father tries to explain to Brian why he would like something done in a particular way, Brian will explode, and at times, he has even tried to shove his father. He does not really have any friends. His mother finds it hard knowing that Brian cannot make friends because he "is the sweetest kid you will ever meet." Brian sometimes thinks he needs to master things right away. He is not very good at abstract thinking, and "he can't think outside of the box." Eye contact has always been something that has been difficult for Brian as well. He can sit in front of the TV watching a show and repeat the entire series word for word. His parents initially had concerns about Brian, when he was 3 or 4 years old. After a specialty evaluation, he was diagnosed with sensory integration disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. He is currently starting the 10th grade this year. Brian was born at 9 months, weighing 7 pounds 10 ounces. There were no complications. He was treated with stimulants for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in the past, and he is currently on a long-acting amphetamine with equivocal efficacy. The parents are primarily here to refill his medication, but you wonder about their understanding about Brian's condition and where to head next during this visit.

PMID:
21057256
DOI:
10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181fa6b17
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Wolters Kluwer
29.
Res Dev Disabil. 2010 Nov-Dec;31(6):1223-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.023. Epub 2010 Aug 30.

Evaluation of two instruction methods to increase employment options for young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
The Prevention Group, Omaha, NE, USA. ray@thepreventiongroup.org

Abstract

We evaluated the efficacy of a vocational training program including behavioral skills training, and a "performance cue system" (i.e., a proprietary iPhone application adapted for the study) to teach targeted social-vocational skills to six young adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. In two separate studies, participants were employed to assist in the delivery of a fire safety education program. Participants were asked to wear an inflatable firefighter WalkAround® mascot costume and to perform 63 scripted behaviors in coordination with a fire prevention specialist who was the lead program presenter. In Study 1, three participants were initially exposed to established company training procedures comprised of behavioral skills training components to determine whether they met mastery of the skills. If necessary to reach criteria, participants were then exposed to a performance cue system. In Study 2, three additional participants were provided with the performance cue system alone, and then behavioral skills training if required. A single case, multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate efficacy of each intervention. Results indicate that 5 of 6 participants reached criterion only after introduction of the cue system while the sixth reached criterion with behavioral skills training alone. The program received high satisfaction ratings from participants, their parents, and consumers. Implications and potential use of the PCS in other employment settings are discussed.

PMID:
20800988
DOI:
10.1016/j.ridd.2010.07.023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
30.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2010 Sep;40(9):1067-79. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-0959-1.

Social competence intervention for youth with Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism: an initial investigation.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, University of Missouri, 303 Townsend Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. stichterj@missouri.edu

Abstract

Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted.

PMID:
20162344
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-010-0959-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
32.
Autism. 2010 Jan;14(1):9-28. doi: 10.1177/1362361309339496.

Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. chpan@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase (phase II) immediately followed, with the treatments reversed. Both groups continued their regular treatment/ activity throughout the study. Improvements were seen in aquatic skills for both groups subsequent to the WESP. Following phase I, significant social improvements were seen in group A. Following phase II, social improvements were seen for group B, whereas group A merely maintained the improvements they attained through the implementation of the WESP during phase I. Results indicate that the WESP improved aquatic skills in the participants, and holds potential for social improvements.

PMID:
20124502
DOI:
10.1177/1362361309339496
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
33.
Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs. 2009;32(3):145-54. doi: 10.1080/01460860903062782.

Bullying of students with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, Dowling College, Oakdale, New York 11769, USA. carters@dowling.edu
PMID:
21992104
DOI:
10.1080/01460860903062782
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Taylor & Francis
35.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008 Sep;50(9):672-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2008.03042.x.

Prevalence and characteristics of autistic spectrum disorders in the ALSPAC cohort.

Author information

1
Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) within a large representative population sample: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Cases of ASD were identified from the clinical notes of children in the ALSPAC with a suspected developmental disorder and from the Pupil Level Annual Schools Census (PLASC) for England in 2003. Seventy-one cases of ASD diagnosed after a multidisciplinary assessment were identified from health records. There were an additional 15 cases from PLASC data in which ASD was mentioned as a principal difficulty, thus giving a total of 86 children diagnosed by the age of 11 years. Prevalence of ASD per 10,000 population at 11 years was 51.1 for those with a multi-professional diagnosis, and 61.9 if cases from education were included, made up of 21.6 for childhood autism, 10.8 for atypical autism, 16.6 for Asperger syndrome, and 13.0 for unspecified ASD. The male:female ratio was 6.8:1. Median age at diagnosis ranged from 45 months in childhood autism to 116 months in Asperger syndrome. A comorbid developmental disorder was recorded in 33.8% of cases, including learning disability in 14.7%, epilepsy in 10.3%, and mixed developmental disorder in 4.4%. We conclude that the prevalence of ASD diagnosed at 11 years in a UK representative population-based sample is at least 51.1/10,000.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for Wiley
36.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Jan;39(1):23-41. doi: 10.1007/s10803-008-0596-0. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Comprehensive synthesis of early intensive behavioral interventions for young children with autism based on the UCLA young autism project model.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. brian.reichow@vanderbilt.edu

Abstract

A 3-part comprehensive synthesis of the early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism based on the University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project method (Lovaas in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9, 1987) is presented. The three components of the synthesis were: (a) descriptive analyses, (b) effect size analyses, and (c) a meta-analysis. The findings suggest EIBI is an effective treatment, on average, for children with autism. The conditions under which this finding applies and the limitations and cautions that must be taken when interpreting the results are discussed within the contextual findings of the moderator analyses conducted in the meta-analysis.

PMID:
18535894
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-008-0596-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Health
37.
J Appl Behav Anal. 2008 Spring;41(1):113-6.

A comparison of general and specific instructions to promote task engagement and completion by a young man with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
Munroe-Meyer Institute, USA.

Abstract

Previous research has suggested that the topography of instructions (general vs. specific) may influence the likelihood that young children comply with instructions. The purpose of the current study was to compare the rates of task completion of a young man diagnosed with Asperger syndrome when provided with general and specific instructions pertaining to the task. The results showed that specific instructions occasioned higher levels of task completion, even when no differential reinforcement contingencies were in place.

PMID:
18468284
PMCID:
PMC2410196
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
Icon for PubMed Central
38.
Autism. 2008 Mar;12(2):173-90. doi: 10.1177/1362361307086664.

Social challenges and supports from the perspective of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities.

Author information

1
National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, USA. eve.muller@nasdse.org

Abstract

The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).

PMID:
18308766
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307086664
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
39.
J Pediatr Health Care. 2008 Mar-Apr;22(2):111-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2007.04.001.

The role of the nurse practitioner in an individualized education plan and coordination of care for the child with Asperger's syndrome.

Author information

1
Center for Leadership in Pediatric and Family Nursing, Florida International University, Miami 33199, USA. lobars@fiu.edu

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to describe the role nurse practitioners can play in the diagnosis, early intervention, and coordination of care for children with Asperger's Syndrome and their families. The article outlines strategies for how nurse practitioners in both school and primary care settings can use the Individualized Educational Plan as a mechanism where they may join an interdisciplinary team of professionals and parents. Nurse practitioners can assist parents, children, and school personnel in planning, intervening, and coordinating services for these families and their children, who are at risk for academic failure and social isolation.

PMID:
18294580
DOI:
10.1016/j.pedhc.2007.04.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
40.
Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):65-82. doi: 10.1177/1362361307085214.

Characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders who received services through community mental health centers.

Author information

1
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. sbryson@ku.edu

Abstract

Despite the presence of significant psychiatric comorbidity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), little research exists on those who receive community-based mental health services. This project examined one year (2004) of data from the database maintained by 26 community mental health centers (CMHCs) in the Midwestern US state of Kansas. Children with autism were compared to children with other ASDs - Asperger's disorder, Rett's disorder, and PDD-NOS. Children with autism predictably received more special education services than children with other ASDs, while the latter were more likely to have experienced prior psychiatric hospitalization. Children with ASDs other than autism were also significantly more likely to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, depressive disorders, and bipolar disorder. In 2004, Kansas CMHCs served less than 15 percent of the children estimated to have an ASD. Implications of these findings are discussed.

PMID:
18178597
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307085214
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
41.
Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46. doi: 10.1177/1362361307085267.

'Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools.

Author information

1
University of Manchester, UK. neil.humphrey@manchester.ac.uk

Abstract

Facilitating the learning and participation of pupils with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (herein referred to as AS) in mainstream schools is complex and poorly understood. We report on a small-scale qualitative study of the views and experiences of 20 such pupils drawn from four secondary schools in north-west England. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and pupil diaries. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to explore how pupils with AS make sense of their educational experiences. The central theme was how participants constructed their understanding of what their AS meant to them. This was often characterized by negative perceptions of their differences, such as being 'retarded' or having a 'bad brain'. The links between this understanding and reported difficulties with peers and teachers, the desire to 'fit in', and other themes are discussed. The implications of these findings for policy and practice in this area are also presented.

PMID:
18178595
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307085267
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
42.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Aug;38(7):1359-70. doi: 10.1007/s10803-007-0524-8. Epub 2008 Jan 3.

Supporting more able students on the autism spectrum: college and beyond.

Author information

1
Vocational Independence Program, New York Institute of Technology, 300 Carleton Avenue, Independence Hall, Central Islip, NY 11722, USA. evanberg@nyit.edu

Abstract

In the 1990's a surge of children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and are now approaching college age. Through early diagnosis and intervention many of these children are now able to consider post secondary education. However, these students will need specific interventions and supports in order to be successful. This article reviews the nosology of ASDs, the legal basis for providing accommodations to students on the autism spectrum, and the incidence and prevalence of ASDs. The authors provide specific recommendations regarding the academic, independent living, social, vocational and counseling needs of college students who are on the autism spectrum. With a carefully planned transition, appropriate accommodations, and support, ASD students can be successful academically and socially in college.

PMID:
18172747
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-007-0524-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
43.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Aug;38(7):1241-9. Epub 2007 Dec 7.

Autistic traits and cognitive performance in young people with mild intellectual impairment.

Author information

1
Division of Psychiatry, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Kennedy Tower, Morningside Park, Edinburgh, EH10 5HF, UK. jharris1@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) range, 14 within the pervasive developmental disorder range and 18 with few autistic traits. The ASD group were significantly poorer than the other groups on a test of cognitive flexibility. In the ASD group only, there was a strong relationship between executive performance and TOM which remained after controlling for IQ. Our findings suggest that the relationship between cognitive traits may more reliably distinguish autism than the presence of individual deficits alone.

PMID:
18064551
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-007-0502-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
44.
J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2007 Dec;32(4):279-90.

Developing social interaction and understanding in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a groupwork intervention.

Author information

1
National Centre for Autism Studies, University of Strathclyde, UK. Tommy@ardoch.fsnet.co.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking, conversation skills, and friendship skills. It also aimed to address some of the limitations of previous interventions, including a lack of generalisation to other settings, so as to maximise inclusion in the community.

METHOD:

A group of 46 high functioning children and adolescents with ASD (38 boys, 8 girls, age range 6-16 years) were allocated to one of 6 intervention groups. Each group met over a period of 12-16 weeks for a minimum of one 1(1/2)-hour weekly session aimed at promoting key areas of social interaction and understanding, supported by home-based practice.

RESULTS:

Significant gains were achieved in comparison with a normative population, and individual parent ratings showed marked and sustained changes in the key areas targeted in the group sessions.

CONCLUSION:

Social communication in children and adolescents with ASD can be enhanced through the use of a groupwork intervention addressing social interaction and understanding.

PMID:
18049972
DOI:
10.1080/13668250701689280
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Taylor & Francis
45.
J Atten Disord. 2008 Sep;12(2):141-8. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

Long-term psychosocial and health economy consequences of ADHD, autism, and reading-writing disorder: a prospective service evaluation project.

Author information

1
Eli Lilly Sweden AB, Solna, Sweden. agneta.nyden@vgregion.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The study aims to evaluate psychosocial, societal, and family cost consequences of a psychoeducational intervention program.

METHODS:

Sixty boys with ADHD, Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA), and reading and writing disorder (RD/WD) were allocated to participate in a service evaluation project. Every other boy in each diagnostic group was randomly allocated to receive either (a) a special education program (clinical index group) or (b) follow-up without the special education program (clinical comparison group). Nine years after initial assessments the stability of the psychosocial and economic resource consequences over time was studied.

RESULTS:

ADHD, AS/HFA, and RD/WD all had severe impact on family life quality. The societal costs were high, but no significant differences in resource use or in total costs were found between the clinical index and the comparison groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results underscore the very long-term need for support including individually tailored reevaluations and carefully monitored intervention programs adapted to family needs and severity of child disorder.

PMID:
17968030
DOI:
10.1177/1087054707306116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
46.
Autism. 2007 Sep;11(5):453-63.

The economic consequences of autistic spectrum disorder among children in a Swedish municipality.

Author information

1
Centre for the Economics of Mental Health, CEMH, Health Service Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Denmark Hill, London, UK. k.jarbrink@iop.kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

In this study, the societal economic consequences of autistic spectrum disorder were investigated using a sample of parents of children identified with the disorder and living in a Swedish municipality. Cost information was collected using a postal questionnaire that was developed through experiences gained from an earlier study. Using conservative assumptions, the additional societal cost due to the disorder was estimated to be approximately 50,000 annually per child. Parents of children with the disorder spent an average of about 1000 hours per year additionally caring for and supporting their child. The study indicates that the major cost drivers for autistic spectrum disorder among children can be found within the community for support and schooling, while the major impact on relatives is on time spent and thereby quality of life rather than a financial burden.

PMID:
17942458
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307079602
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
47.
Autism. 2007 Sep;11(5):397-411.

Evaluation of the relationship development intervention program.

Author information

1
The Connections Center, Houston, Texas 77025, USA. gutstein@rdiconnect.com

Abstract

This study is the second in a series evaluating the effectiveness of Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) to address unique deficits inherent in autism spectrum disorders. RDI is a parent-based, cognitive-developmental approach, in which primary caregivers are trained to provide daily opportunities for successful functioning in increasingly challenging dynamic systems. This study reviewed the progress of 16 children who participated in RDI between 2000 and 2005. Changes in the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), flexibility, and school placement were compared prior to treatment and at a minimum 30 month follow-up period. While all children met ADOS/ADI-R criteria for autism prior to treatment, no child met criteria at follow-up. Similar positive results were found in relation to flexibility and educational placement. Generalizability of current findings is limited by the lack of a control or comparison group, constraints on age and IQ of treated children, parent self-selection, and parent education conducted through a single clinic setting.

PMID:
17942454
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307079603
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
48.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Feb;38(2):383-9. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

Brief report: emerging services for children with autism spectrum disorders in Hong Kong (1960-2004).

Author information

1
Division of Child Neurology/Developmental Paediatrics/Neurohabilitation, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. vcnwong@hku.hk

Abstract

Early identification of autistic features in any child is important because there is potential for improvement by means of interventional, educational, or rehabilitative programs. Appropriate diagnosis of autism requires a dual-level approach--routine developmental surveillance and screening, and diagnosis and evaluation of autism. The historical emergence of a model of services for children with autism in Hong Kong arose because of increasing awareness, increasing prevalence, and pressure from parents and support groups. The university-based Autism Research Program at the University of Hong Kong serves as an example of an integrated center for research, teaching, and training in autism. The period from 1960 to 2004 is reviewed.

PMID:
17605098
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-007-0394-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
49.
Res Dev Disabil. 2008 Jul-Aug;29(4):289-300. Epub 2007 Jul 2.

Parents of children with Asperger syndrome or with learning disabilities: family environment and social support.

Author information

1
The Open University of Israel, Department of Education and Psychology, 108 Ravutski St., Raanana 43107, Israel. talihe@openu.ac.il

Abstract

The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale questionnaires. The comparison revealed significant differences for expressiveness and family system organization and for social support. Parents with an Asperger child perceived their family's expressive feelings as lower and the family organization as higher, and perceived their friendships and other support as lower than the other groups of parent. Parents of the control group reported the highest family support. The study highlighted the need for additional social support for parents with a child with special needs, and accentuated the importance of developing awareness and intervention programs to facilitate parents' coping abilities and their family interactions.

PMID:
17604952
DOI:
10.1016/j.ridd.2007.05.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
50.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2008 Feb;38(2):261-75. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

Constant and progressive time delay procedures for teaching children with autism: a literature review.

Author information

1
Department of Communication Sciences and Special Education, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. gab_rielaa@yahoo.com

Abstract

A review of 22 empirical studies examining the use of constant (CTD) and progressive (PTD) time delay procedures employed with children with autism frames an indirect analysis of the demographic, procedural, methodological, and outcome parameters of existing research. None of the previous manuscripts compared the two response prompting procedures. This review suggests that the effectiveness of the two procedures is similar on some variables. However, the CTD procedure resulted in more errors to criterion, a greater magnitude of procedural modifications, and in a delayed moment of transfer of stimulus control than in the PTD studies. Conclusions may influence clinical and educational practices and indicate a need for research.

PMID:
17546491
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-007-0390-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Health
51.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):551-5.

[Special support education for students with Asperger's syndrome].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Department of Special Support Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education.

Abstract

The necessity of an educational action on the child student with the Asperger's syndrome etc. started after 2001, and it became clearer in "big paradigm conversion from a current special education system to a new special support education system". Legal maintenance corresponding to "LD, ADHD, high-functioning autism etc." including the Asperger's syndrome became recent years, it come one after another, and the construction of the system of support began to advance rapidly in nationwide various schools. And, it started, and the construction of a continuing consistent system of support from the kindergarten to the high school began to materialize to the construction of the support system.

PMID:
17354575
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
52.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):545-50.

[Administrative support for Asperger's syndrome].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Japan Developmental Disabilities Network.

Abstract

In recent years, administrative support for developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, has come to be conspicuous with "Law for Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities", which went into effect in 2005, and promotion of "Special Support Education". However, these supports are still insufficient, because administrative support for the Asperger's syndrome in Japan, having just started very recently. Developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, are by no means mild as disabilities, it is required to fill up administrative support for them from now on.

PMID:
17354574
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
53.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):527-31.

[Toward providing individualized educational support for children with Asperger's disorder].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Faculty of Education, Okayama University.

Abstract

In the present study, I examined educational support for children with Asperger' s disorder. From the viewpoint of individualized support and class-wide management, means of some effective educational support in regular education classroom was introduced. In the practice of individualized support, importance of the case meeting where teachers and parents participated in was pointed out. In addition, it was necessary to make support tools to realize effective support. On the other hand, in the practice of class-wide management, guidance of making human relations between children was one of the top priority problems.

PMID:
17354571
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
54.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):492-6.

[Non-verbal learning disabilities].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Research Center for Child and Adolescent Development and Education, Ochanomizu University.

Abstract

In 1975, Myklebust proposed a special form of learning disabilities characterizes by impairment of spatial cognition, social interaction and conceptualization, and named it as non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD). Since the brain locus for spatial cognition was thought to be localized in the right hemisphere, NLD was regarded as a disorder of the right hemispheric function. The clinical characteristics of NLD are almost identical to those of Asperger syndrome (AS), which was introduced in English literature in 1981. Since Asperger syndrome is regarded as one of the autistic spectrum disorders, and autism was once regarded as the left hemispheric dysfunction, it has long been believed that NLD and AS are clinically different entities. However, their clinical similarities have raised a growing opinion that these two disorders are probably identical or at least closely related.

PMID:
17354564
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
55.
Autism. 2007 Mar;11(2):173-85.

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): test-retest reliability in a high scoring sample.

Author information

1
University of Cambridge, UK. cla29@cam.ac.uk

Abstract

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in mainstream schools. This study aimed to investigate test-retest reliability of the CAST in a high scoring sample. To this end, 73 parents filled in the second CAST (CAST-2) within approximately 2 months of the first administration of the CAST (CAST-1). Agreement above and below the cut-point of 15 was investigated. The kappa statistic for agreement (<15 versus > or =15) was 0.41. It was found that 70 percent (95% CI: 58, 80) of children did not move across the cut-point of 15. The correlation between the two test scores was 0.67 (Spearman's rho). The CAST shows moderate test-retest reliability in a high scoring sample, further evidence that it is a relatively robust screening tool for epidemiological research.

PMID:
17353217
DOI:
10.1177/1362361307075710
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
56.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007 Feb 9;56(1):12-28.

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002.

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Data from a population-based, multisite surveillance network were used to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children aged 8 years in 14 areas of the United States and to describe the characteristics of these children.

REPORTING PERIOD:

2002.

METHODS:

Children aged 8 years were identified as having an ASD through screening and abstraction of evaluation records at health facilities for all 14 sites and through information from psychoeducational evaluations for special education services for 10 of the 14 sites. Case status was determined through clinician review of data abstracted from the records. Children whose parent(s) or legal guardian(s) resided in the respective areas in 2002 and whose records documented behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified; or Asperger disorder were classified as having ASDs.

RESULTS:

For 2002, of 407,578 children aged 8 years in the 14 surveillance areas, 2,685 (0.66%) were identified as having an ASD. ASD prevalence per 1,000 children aged 8 years ranged from 3.3 (Alabama) to 10.6 (New Jersey), with the majority of sites ranging from 5.2 to 7.6 (overall mean: 6.6 [i.e., one of every 152 children across all sites). ASD prevalence was significantly lower than all other sites in Alabama (p<0.001) and higher in New Jersey (p<0.0001). ASD prevalence varied by identification source, with higher average prevalence for ASDs in sites with access to health and education records (mean: 7.2) compared with sites with health records only (mean: 5.1). Five sites identified a higher prevalence of ASDs for non-Hispanic white children than for non-Hispanic black children. The ratio of males to females ranged from 3.4:1.0 in Maryland, South Carolina, and Wisconsin to 6.5:1.0 in Utah. The majority of children were receiving special education services at age 8 years and had a documented history of concerns regarding their development before age 3 years. However, the median age of earliest documented ASD diagnosis was much later (range: 49 months [Utah]--66 months [Alabama]). The proportion of children with characteristics consistent with the criteria for an ASD classification who had a previously documented ASD classification varied across sites. In the majority of sites, females with an ASD were more likely than males to have cognitive impairment. For the six sites for which prevalence data were available from both 2000 and 2002, ASD prevalence was stable in four sites and increased in two sites (17% in Georgia and 39% in West Virginia).

INTERPRETATION:

Results from the second report of a U.S. multisite collaboration to monitor ASD prevalence demonstrated consistency of prevalence in the majority of sites, with variation in two sites. Prevalence was stable in the majority of sites for which 2 years of data were available, but an increase in West Virginia and a trend toward an increase in Georgia indicate the need for ongoing monitoring of ASD prevalence.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS:

These ASD prevalence data provide the most complete information on the prevalence of the ASDs in the United States to date. The data confirm that ASD prevalence is a continuing urgent public health concern affecting an approximate average of one child in every 150 and that efforts are needed to improve early identification of ASDs.

PMID:
17287715
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
57.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007 Feb 9;56(1):1-11.

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, six sites, United States, 2000.

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION:

Data from a population-based, multisite surveillance network were used to determine the prevalence of children aged 8 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in six areas of the United States and to describe the characteristics of these children.

REPORTING PERIOD:

2000.

METHODS:

Children aged 8 years were identified as having an ASD through screening and abstraction of evaluation records at multiple sources, with clinician review of abstracted records to determine case status. Children whose parent(s) or legal guardian(s) resided in one of the six surveillance areas during 2000 and whose records documented behaviors consistent with the American Psychiatric Association's criteria for diagnosing 1) autistic disorder, 2) pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, or 3) Asperger disorder were classified as having an ASD.

RESULTS:

For 2000, across six sites, a total of 1,252 children aged 8 years were identified as having an ASD. The overall prevalence of ASDs per 1,000 children aged 8 years ranged from 4.5 in West Virginia to 9.9 in New Jersey. With the exception of one surveillance site (Georgia), no statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were identified in the rate of ASDs between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children. The ratio of male-to-female prevalence varied (range: 2.8:1.0-5.5:1.0). The majority of children with ASDs received special education services and had a documented history of concerns regarding their development before age 3 years. The prevalence of children with a previously documented ASD classification varied across sites, but the median age of earliest documented ASD diagnosis was similar across sites (age 52-56 months). For three sites with sufficient data on intelligence quotient (IQ), cognitive impairment (i.e., IQ of </=70) was reported for 40%-62% of children whose conditions were consistent with the case definition for ASD.

INTERPRETATION:

Findings from this first U.S. multisite collaborative study to monitor ASD prevalence demonstrated consistency across the majority of sites, with prevalence statistically significantly (p<0.001) higher in New Jersey. Average ASD prevalence across all six sites was 6.7 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. These results indicate that ASDs are more common than was believed previously.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS:

Collecting data regarding prevalence of ASDs by associated characteristics (e.g., cognitive impairment, age of first documented concerns, and history of ASD diagnosis), race/ethnicity, and sex will provide important baseline standards that can be compared with follow-up surveillance data to track changes in ASD prevalence. Knowledge of these characteristics has implications for identification and intervention strategies and for medical and educational service planning for children with ASDs.

PMID:
17287714
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
58.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Sep;37(8):1403-12. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

Educational placements and service use patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
Virginia Treatment Center for Children, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 515 North 10th Street, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA. swilliams25@vcu.edu

Abstract

This project was undertaken to identify child characteristics associated with educational placement and service use in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders. The sample of 101 (nine females) had a mean age of 12 +/- 3 years (mean IQ = 101.77 +/- 19.50). Results indicate that lower-cognitive ability and communication skill were associated with placement in special education. Based on parent-report, most students stayed in the same placement (regular or special education) in which they began first grade and the majority of students received special services in their schools (most often speech/language intervention). Findings highlight the emphasis placed on certain child characteristics (e.g., cognitive ability), with far less emphasis on other areas (e.g., degree of social deficit), in educational placement and service provision.

PMID:
17082975
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-006-0281-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
60.
Autism. 2006 Jul;10(4):415-27.

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): test-retest reliability.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK. j.g.williams.97@cantab.net

Abstract

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions in research. Good test accuracy was demonstrated in studies with primary school aged children in mainstream schools. The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the CAST. Parents of 1000 children in years 1-6 in five mainstream primary schools in Cambridgeshire received the CAST. A second identical questionnaire was posted to respondents after approximately 2 weeks. Both mailings generated 136 responses. Agreement above and below a screening cut-point of 15 was investigated. The kappa statistic for agreement (< 15 versus > or = 15) was 0.70, and 97 percent (95 percent CI: 93-99 percent) of children did not move across the cut-point of 15. The correlation between the two test scores was 0.83 (Spearman's rho). The CAST has shown good test-retest reliability, and now requires further investigation in a high-scoring sample.

PMID:
16908483
DOI:
10.1177/1362361306066612
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
61.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Aug;36(6):807-28.

Residual language deficits in optimal outcome children with a history of autism.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269-1020, USA. kellyb@post.queens.ca

Abstract

This study examined whether language deficits persist even in children with optimal outcomes. We examined a group of children with prior diagnoses on the autism spectrum who had IQs in the normal range, were in age-appropriate mainstream classes, and had improved to such an extent that they were considered to be functioning at the level of their typically developing peers. Fourteen such children between the ages of five and nine were matched on age and sex with typically developing children, and were given a battery of 10 language tests to investigate their language abilities. Results indicated that while these children's grammatical capabilities are mostly indistinguishable from their peers, they are still experiencing difficulties in pragmatic and semantic language.

PMID:
16897404
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-006-0111-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
62.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Nov;36(8):1089-100.

Verbal marking of affect by children with Asperger Syndrome and high functioning autism during spontaneous interactions with family members.

Author information

1
Project Forum, National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 1800 Diagonal Road, Suite #320, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. eve.muller@nasdse.org

Abstract

Verbal marking of affect by older children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) during spontaneous interactions is described. Discourse analysis of AS and HFA and typically developing children included frequency of affective utterances, affective initiations, affective labels and affective explanations, attribution of affective responses to self and others, and positive and negative markers of affect. Findings indicate that children with AS and HFA engaged in a higher proportion of affect marking and provided a higher proportion of affective explanations than typically developing children, yet were less likely to initiate affect marking sequences or talk about the affective responses of others. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of the marking of positive and negative affect.

PMID:
16897388
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-006-0146-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
63.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 May;36(4):445-69.

Social Stories for children with disabilities.

Author information

1
Macquarie University Special Education Centre, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia. georgina.reynhout@speced.sed.mq.edu.au

Abstract

A review of the empirical research literature on Social Stories is presented, including a descriptive review and single-subject meta-analysis of appropriate studies. Examination of data suggests the effects of Social Stories are highly variable. Interpretations of extant studies are frequently confounded by inadequate participant description and the use of Social Stories in combination with other interventions. It is unclear whether particular components of Social Stories are central to their efficacy. Data on maintenance and generalization are also limited. Social Stories stand as a promising intervention, being relatively straightforward and efficient to implement with application to a wide range of behaviors. Further research is needed to determine the exact nature of their contribution and the components critical to their efficacy.

PMID:
16755384
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-006-0086-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Springer
64.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 May 5;55(17):481-6.

Mental health in the United States: parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4-17 years--United States, 2003-2004.

Abstract

Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early onset of impairments in social interaction and communication and unusual, stereotyped behaviors. Autism (i.e., autistic disorder) often is classified with two related, although less severe, developmental disorders: Asperger disorder and pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified. These three constitute the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Diagnosis of ASDs is based exclusively on developmental pattern and behavioral observation. Two population-based studies conducted by CDC in selected U.S. locations reported ASD prevalence of 3.4 and 6.7 per 1,000 children, respectively. CDC also conducts two nationally representative surveys, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), in which parents are asked whether their child ever received a diagnosis of autism. Because of similarities in methodology used by the two surveys, CDC analyzed 2003-2004 data from NHIS and data from the first-ever NSCH (collected during January 2003-July 2004) to 1) estimate the population-based prevalence of parental report of diagnosed autism in the United States and 2) assess parental reporting of child social, emotional, and behavioral strengths and difficulties and special-health care needs among children with and without reported autism. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism was 5.7 per 1,000 children in NHIS and 5.5 per 1,000 children in NSCH. Prevalence estimates in the two studies were similar across age, sex, and racial/ethnic populations. The consistency in estimates between the two surveys suggests high reliability for parental report of autism. These estimates suggest that, as of 2003-2004, autism had been diagnosed in at least 300,000 U.S. children aged 4-17 years. In addition, parental reports of autism were associated with reported social, emotional, and behavioral symptoms and specialized needs. Thus, these surveys might be useful to assess health, education, and social service needs of children with autism.

PMID:
16675944
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for CDC - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
65.
Pediatr Rehabil. 2005 Apr-Jun;8(2):104-12.

Managing autism and Asperger's syndrome in current educational provision.

Author information

1
School of Education, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. r.r.jordan@bham.ac.uk

Abstract

There is a need to understand the difficulties faced by those with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in educational settings if one is to manage and help them manage their learning. This paper explores some of the most pertinent problems that arise. It analyses perceptual, social, conceptual, emotional and memorizing barriers to learning and shows how difficulties in communication are exacerbated by educational language, which gives a poor model for those who have no prior understanding of inter-personal communication. The notion of an 'autism-friendly' environment is examined as is the process of how schools and other learning institutions might be helped to create such an environment. Education as entitlement is distinguished from education as therapy and the implications for inclusion are examined. It is argued that the best teaching arises from an empathetic understanding and a willingness to be flexible, the worst, from rigidity and an expectation that it is the child who must change. There is no single approach that can meet all the needs of those with ASDs, but nor are needs entirely determined by individual behaviour. It is the understanding of ASD that enables the teacher to correctly identify the child's learning needs and begin to meet them.

PMID:
16089250
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
67.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003 Jun;45(6):377-84.

Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder in children attending mainstream schools in a Welsh education authority.

Author information

1
Department of Child Health, University of Wales College of Medicine, Children's Centre, Cardiff, UK. webbev@cf.ac.uk

Abstract

All mainstream primary schools in Cardiff were invited in July 1998 to participate in a prevalence survey of autistic spectrum disorder. Teachers of each class filled in a questionnaire based on ICD-10 criteria for autistic disorders. The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) was completed on children identified with problems identified by the questionnaire. A total of 11692 children born between 1 September 1986 and 31 August 1990 were screened: 234 (2%) children were identified as requiring an ASSQ; 151 of 234 (65%) ASSQs were returned. Of the 151, 60 children (52 male, 8 female; 40%) scored 22 or more. Their notes and the involved professionals were consulted. Thirty-five children, unknown to specialist services or with complex features, required additional assessment. Seventeen children (all male) were found to be on the autistic spectrum. When the overall rubric was disentangled we found a diverse population of affected children including a handful who did not fit easily into ICD-10 classification. Correcting for incomplete ascertainment we found a minimum prevalence of 20.2 out of every 10 000 (SE = 4.5) for autistic spectrum disorder in this population.

PMID:
12785438
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for Wiley
68.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2003 Jan;12(1):123-41.

Behavioral forms of stress management for individuals with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, University of Kansas, Joseph R. Pearson Hall, 1122 West Campus Road, 5th Floor, Lawrence, KS 66045-3101, USA. bmyles@ku.edu

Abstract

Although many children and youth with AS exhibit anxiety that may lead to challenging behaviors, stress and subsequent behaviors should be viewed as an integral part of the disorder [36]. As such, it is important to understand the cycle of behaviors to prevent seemingly minor events from escalating. Although understanding the cycle of tantrums, rage, and meltdowns is important, behavior changes will not occur unless the function of the behavior is understood and the student is provided instruction and support in using (1) strategies that increase social understanding and problem solving, (2) techniques that facilitate self-understanding, and (3) methods of self-calming. Because little research exists on the cycle of behaviors exhibited by students with AS and interventions appropriate at each stage, a systematic program of research is required to identify which techniques are most appropriate for children and youth, the context in which they can be used, and methods to ensure that individuals with AS generalize these skills to home, school, and community.

PMID:
12512402
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
69.
JAMA. 2003 Jan 1;289(1):49-55.

Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area.

Author information

1
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (F-15), 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. mxy1@cdc.gov

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Concern has been raised about possible increases in the prevalence of autism. However, few population-based studies have been conducted in the United States.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine the prevalence of autism among children in a major US metropolitan area and to describe characteristics of the study population.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND POPULATION:

Study of the prevalence of autism among children aged 3 to 10 years in the 5 counties of metropolitan Atlanta, Ga, in 1996. Cases were identified through screening and abstracting records at multiple medical and educational sources, with case status determined by expert review.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Autism prevalence by demographic factors, levels of cognitive functioning, previous autism diagnoses, special education eligibility categories, and sources of identification.

RESULTS:

A total of 987 children displayed behaviors consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, or Asperger disorder. The prevalence for autism was 3.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2-3.6) (male-female ratio, 4:1). Overall, the prevalence was comparable for black and white children (black, 3.4 per 1000 [95% CI, 3.0-3.7] and white, 3.4 per 1000 [95% CI, 3.2-3.7]). Sixty-eight percent of children with IQ or developmental test results (N = 880) had cognitive impairment. As severity of cognitive impairment increased from mild to profound, the male-female ratio decreased from 4.4 to 1.3. Forty percent of children with autism were identified only at educational sources. Schools were the most important source for information on black children, children of younger mothers, and children of mothers with less than 12 years of education.

CONCLUSION:

The rate of autism found in this study was higher than the rates from studies conducted in the United States during the 1980s and early 1990s, but it was consistent with those of more recent studies.

PMID:
12503976
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
70.
Autism. 2002 Mar;6(1):9-31.

The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

Author information

1
Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK.

Erratum in

  • Autism. 2002 Dec;6(4):following table of contents..

Abstract

The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

PMID:
11918111
DOI:
10.1177/1362361302006001003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
71.
Autism. 2001 Sep;5(3):299-316.

Evaluation of a new computer intervention to teach people with autism or Asperger syndrome to recognize and predict emotions in others.

Author information

1
The Child and Family Unit, St James's Hospital, Leeds, UK. miriam@webmancer.freeserve.co.uk

Abstract

This randomized controlled trial looked at the effect of a new computer program designed to teach people with autistic spectrum disorders to better recognize and predict emotional responses in others. Two groups of 11 children (age 12-18) with autism or Asperger syndrome at two special schools participated: one group used the computer program for 10 half-hour sessions over 2 weeks. Within-program data showed a significant reduction in errors made from first to last use. Students were assessed pre- and post-intervention using facial expression photographs, cartoons depicting emotion-laden situations, and non-literal stories. Scores were not related to age or verbal ability. The experimental group made gains relative to the control group on all three measures. Gains correlated significantly with the number of times the computer program was used and results suggest positive effects. Further research could assess whether these gains generalized into real life or improved performance on theory of mind measures.

PMID:
11708589
DOI:
10.1177/1362361301005003007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
72.
Autism. 2001 Mar;5(1):37-48.

Perceptions of school by two teenage boys with Asperger syndrome and their mothers: a qualitative study.

Author information

1
School of Learning and Development, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. sx.carrington@qut.edu.au

Abstract

This qualitative study aimed to develop an understanding of the challenges faced by teenage boys with Asperger syndrome and their mothers. A case study approach was used to collect data from two 13-year-old boys who have Asperger syndrome and their mothers in Queensland, Australia. Data were collected through the use of semistructured interviews. The words of the boys and their mothers provide a valuable insight into the personal experiences and feelings of the participants. An inductive approach to data analysis identified four themes: (1) developmental differences; (2) problems associated with the general characteristics of Asperger syndrome (i.e. communication and social difficulties, restricted range of interests, a need for routine); (3) stress; and (4) 'masquerading'. The first three themes relate strongly to the current literature, but the emergence of masquerading is of particular interest in developing a fuller understanding of the experiences of individuals with Asperger syndrome at school.

PMID:
11708388
DOI:
10.1177/1362361301005001004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
73.
Pediatrics. 2001 Nov;108(5):1155-61.

Prevalence of autism in a United States population: the Brick Township, New Jersey, investigation.

Author information

1
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA. jbertrand@cdc.gov

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study determined the prevalence of autism for a defined community, Brick Township, New Jersey, using current diagnostic and epidemiologic methods.

METHODS:

The target population was children who were 3 to 10 years of age in 1998, who were residents of Brick Township at any point during that year, and who had an autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder was defined as autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger disorder. The study used 4 sources for active case finding: special education records, records from local clinicians providing diagnosis or treatment for developmental or behavioral disabilities, lists of children from community parent groups, and families who volunteered for participation in the study in response to media attention. The autism diagnosis was verified (or ruled out) for 71% of the children through clinical assessment. The assessment included medical and developmental history, physical and neurologic evaluation, assessment of intellectual and behavioral functioning, and administration of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of all autism spectrum disorders combined was 6.7 cases per 1000 children. The prevalence for children whose condition met full diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder was 4.0 cases per 1000 children, and the prevalence for PDD-NOS and Asperger disorder was 2.7 cases per 1000 children. Characteristics of children with autism in this study were similar to those in previous studies of autism.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of autism in Brick Township seems to be higher than that in other studies, particularly studies conducted in the United States, but within the range of a few recent studies in smaller populations that used more thorough case-finding methods.

PMID:
11694696
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for HighWire
75.
Lakartidningen. 2000 Nov 29;97(48):5634-9, 5641.

[Neuropsychiatric problems among children are signigicantly underdiagnosed. Intervention programs result in better and less expensive care].

[Article in Swedish]

Author information

1
Göteborgs universitet. agneta.nyden@sahlgrenska.se

Abstract

Neuropsychiatric problems (Asperger syndrome, ADHD, reading and writing disorders) affect 6-10 per cent of all children in Sweden. Many of these disorders are never diagnosed. As a consequence, secondary behaviour problems and impaired family relations often follow. A study of 60 families with at least one child affected by one of the above mentioned disorders shows that quality of life can be increased and problems reduced if parents and children are informed of the child's disabilities and the child receives a special education programme. Families who do not receive this special treatment more often apply for medical care from other (more expensive) sources. Quite often do they find this treatment unsatisfactory.

PMID:
11187381
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
76.
Sante Ment Que. 1998 Spring;23(1):96-114.

[Diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders without mental retardation and its impact on obtaining social and educational services in Quebec].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Service de recherche et clinique spécialisée de l'autisme à l'hôpital de Rivière-des-Prairies.

Abstract

Pervasive developmental disorders without mental retardation is a new clinical category including high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder non otherwise specified. Its recognition is recent and still problematic in many regards. This article reviews the historical, theoretical and clinical relations between pervasive developmental disorders without mental retardation and bordering disorders. The consequences of an inadequate diagnosis on measures of assistance for these patients is also investigated. The authors conclude on the necessity in considering, independently of the diagnosis, the description of symptoms, the intellectual level and the adaptative level in order to take the most appropriate educational and psychosocial decisions regarding pervasive developmental disorders without mental retardation.

PMID:
9775956
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Erudit
77.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1997 Sep;39(9):583-7.

Attention deficits and autistic spectrum problems in children exposed to alcohol during gestation: a follow-up study.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgren University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

Abstract

Children born to mothers who had abused alcohol throughout pregnancy had severe behavioural and intellectual problems which remained at age 11 to 14 years. Of 24 children examined, 10 had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without developmental coordination disorder, two had Asperger syndrome, and one had an autistic-like condition not meeting the criteria for Asperger syndrome. Six of these 24 attended special schools for the mentally retarded and a further 11 were given special education, leaving only seven attending regular schools without any type of support. The children had difficulties in mathematics, logical conclusions, visual perception, spatial relations, short-term memory, and attention. Sixteen children lived in foster homes. There was a clear correlation between the occurrence and severity of the neuropsychiatric disorder and the degree of alcohol exposure in utero.

PMID:
9344050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
Icon for Wiley
78.
Eur J Neurol. 1995 Jul;2(3):151-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.1995.tb00110.x.

The neurology of autism: many unanswered questions.

Author information

1
Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, and Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Abstract

Autism is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder of the brain almost always presenting in infancy or the preschool years. Its symptoms persist life-long, although partial compensation is possible through targeted special education that addresses children's deficits in sociability, verbal and non-verbal communication, and atypical range of interests, activities, and cognitive skills. Although a majority of autistic individuals are mentally deficient, IQ is not a defining feature and verbal autistic persons of normal intelligence are increasingly being identified, referred to as Asperger syndrome. Meager neuropathologic data have disclosed subtle prenatal cellular limbic and cerebellar abnormalities. Autism is associated with a variety of defined genetic and acquired conditions, with multifactorial genetic traits, alone or interacting with environmental events, presumably responsible for most unexplained cases. Autistic regression is frequent and poorly understood and may be associated with clinical or subclinical epilepsy. Unravelling the neurobiologic basis of a disorder that may affect 1-2 in 1000 children will require a concerted multidisciplinary attack.

79.
Dev Med Child Neurol. 1989 Dec;31(6):709-20.

Asperger's syndrome and autism: comparison of early history and outcome.

Author information

1
Chedoke-McMaster Hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario.

Abstract

The authors compared children with Asperger syndrome (AS) with high-functioning autistic children and psychiatric outpatient controls on measures of early history and outcome. In terms of their early history, the autistic probands showed more social impairment, a higher frequency of echolalia and pronoun reversal, and a more restricted range of activities than the AS group. Cluster analysis suggested refinements to the diagnostic criteria, which resulted in larger differences between the groups on these early history measures. In terms of their outcome, the autistic probands spent more time in special education classes but developed fewer accessory psychiatric symptoms than the AS children. It was clear, however, that there were no substantive, qualitative differences between the AS and autistic groups, indicating that AS should be considered a mild form of high-functioning autism. The inclusion of AS among the autistic spectrum of disorders has implications both for aetiological studies and for prevalence estimates of the pervasive developmental disorders.

PMID:
2599265
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Wiley

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center