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Items: 5

1.
Psychiatriki. 2012 Jun;23 Suppl 1:66-73.

[The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

[Article in Greek, Modern]

Author information

1
2nd Department of Psychiatry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Attikon" University General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities, professional success or even an adequate social adaptation, such as marriage and family. Very often their symptoms will be confused with those of other disorders and they will be also prescribed psychotropic medication with very few, if any, results. In the current paper, we will point out the symptoms and situations that should alert the psychiatrist for the presence of an ASD in an adult with a normal intelligence and adequate functioning that is referred to him for bizarre ideas or behaviors. The designated diagnostic procedure for the ascertainment of the ASD in this case is similar to the one followed for children and adolescents and comprises of a detailed developmental history and a relevant observation and interview. Finally, we will discuss the most common difficulties in the differential diagnosis of the high functioning adults with an ASD from those suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder, Schizophrenia and Psychosis, and we will provide key issues that can be of an assistance in the more accurate assessment and categorization of the presented symptoms.

PMID:
22796975
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
3.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007 Dec;61(6):651-7.

Emotional distress and its correlates among parents of children with pervasive developmental disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan. atsurou.yamada@mbr.cifty.com

Abstract

A number of studies have reported that parents of autistic children face higher levels of stress, but few studies examined the stress associated with the home care of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) other than autistic disorder. The aims of the present study were therefore to (i) evaluate the emotional stress level of parents caring for their children with PDD; and (ii) explore the correlates of their emotional stress. Participants were 147 families (147 mothers and 122 fathers) of 158 children with PDD (42 with autistic disorder, 35 with Asperger's disorder and 81 with PDD not otherwise specified). K6 was used to measure the stress level of the parents. Marital relationships and personality were assessed with the Intimate Bond Measure and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, respectively. The parents also rated the characteristics of their children with PDD through the Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS). The mean K6 score of the mothers was significantly higher than that of the women in the general population in Japan. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the emotional stress of the mothers was correlated with the personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness, perceived Control by the husband, and the children's PARS score. Clinicians can deliver better service by paying appropriate attention to the emotional distress of mothers of children with not only autistic disorder but also other PDD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2003 Aug;33(4):383-94.

Sibling relationships when a child has autism: marital stress and support coping.

Author information

1
Autism Consultant, Portsmouth, VA, USA.

Abstract

Family systems theory was employed to study sibling relationships in 50 families with a child with autism. Typically developing siblings expressed satisfaction with their sibling relationships. Parents were somewhat less positive about the sibling relationship than were the siblings themselves. As hypothesized, stress in the marital relationship was associated with compromised sibling relationships. Informal social support buffered the deleterious effects of marital stress on positive, but not negative, aspects of the sibling relationship. Contrary to predictions, families experiencing high marital stress who sought greater support from formal resources external to the family had typically developing siblings who reported a higher level of negative sibling behaviors than families who sought low levels of formal support. Findings reinforce the importance of considering family context as a contributor to the quality of the sibling relationship.

PMID:
12959417
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
5.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;6(4):181-90.

The outcome in children with childhood autism and Asperger syndrome originally diagnosed as psychotic. A 30-year follow-up study of subjects hospitalized as children.

Author information

1
Department of Child Psychiatry, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

This follow-up study reports data on 18 children fulfilling the ICD-10 criteria for childhood autism (n = 9) and Asperger syndrome (n = 9). In connection with the present study the original child psychiatric records were reassessed according to the ICD-10 criteria. The children were followed over a period of 30 years. The mean age at the time of study was 38 years. The results show that in adulthood the autistic patients had a poorer outcome than children with Asperger syndrome as regards education, employment, autonomy, marriage, reproduction and the need for continuing medical and institutional care. Particular attention is given to pharmacotherapy and the relationship between the childhood disorder and psychiatric morbidity in adult life.

PMID:
9442996
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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