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Items: 15

1.
Int J Psychiatry Med. 2014;47(3):263-71. doi: 10.2190/PM.47.3.g.

Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

Author information

1
Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan.

Abstract

Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide.

KEYWORDS:

adolescence; autism spectrum disorder; emergency room; suicide attempt

PMID:
25084822
DOI:
10.2190/PM.47.3.g
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
2.
Arch Suicide Res. 2014;18(4):327-39. doi: 10.1080/13811118.2013.824834.

Suicide in autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
a Hôtel-dieu de France , Beirut , Lebanon.

Abstract

This review focuses on suicide in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as well as risk factors and comorbidities of persons with ASD who have attempted suicide. Research was conducted by searching PubMed and Psychinfo for articles. Suicide in ASD is largely understudied. Although suicide is common in clinical samples, we have little knowledge of suicide in persons with ASD in the general population. Comorbidity, particularly with depression and other affective disorders or schizoid disorders and psychotic symptoms, is often reported, so it is difficult to determine if suicidality is associated with ASD or the comorbid disorder. Clinical samples suggest that suicide occurs more frequently in high functioning autism. Physical and sexual abuse, bullying, and changes in routine are precipitating events associated with suicide risk. Persons with ASD present risk factors inherent to their diagnosis (deficit in expression of feelings and thoughts), along with risk factors pertaining to the general population (abuse, depression, anxiety, etc.). The inability of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) to express emotions and thoughts makes the diagnosis of suicidal ideation difficult and demands important adjustments to traditional psychotherapeutic interventions. More research is needed to determine the incidence of suicidal behaviors in persons with ASD, to identify risk and protective factors, as well as to assess the effectiveness of prevention strategies and interventions.

KEYWORDS:

Asperger; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Pervasive Developmental Disorder; autism; suicide; suicide attempts

PMID:
24713024
DOI:
10.1080/13811118.2013.824834
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Am J Nurs. 2011 Sep;111(9):34-43; quiz 44-5. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000405060.13022.b7.

Care of the suicidal pediatric patient in the ED: a case study.

Author information

1
Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. schmid@childrens.harvard.edu

Abstract

OVERVIEW:

The suicide rate among children and adolescents has increased worldwide over the past few decades, and many who attempt suicide are first seen at EDs. At Childrens Hospital Boston (CHB), an algorithm-the Risk of Suicidality Clinical Practice Algorithm-has been developed to ensure evidence-based care supported by best practice guidelines. The authors of this article provide an overview of pediatric suicide and suicide attempts; describe screening, assessment, and interventions used at CHB; and discuss the nursing implications. An illustrative case study is also provided.

Comment in

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2011 Jul;20(3):447-65. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.03.004.

Cornered: an approach to school bullying and cyberbullying, and forensic implications.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. jbostic@partners.org

Abstract

Bullying is an abuse of power and control that can cause significant harm to individuals. School systems have the difficult task of trying to police this behavior to maintain a safe learning environment for their students. Although there may be an identified bully, the ramifications of the behavior affect the system as a whole. Bullies, targeted victims, and bystanders play an integral role in ameliorating this problem. A change of culture within the school system is often the best, yet often the most difficult, intervention. In addition, cyberbullying has become a powerful avenue for bullying, resulting in significant morbidity within schools.

PMID:
21683912
DOI:
10.1016/j.chc.2011.03.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Elsevier Science
5.
Autism. 2011 May;15(3):355-72. doi: 10.1177/1362361310365070. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Social vulnerability and bullying in children with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Australia. kate@psy.uq.edu.au

Abstract

Children with Asperger syndrome (AS) have IQ within the normal range but specific impairments in theory of mind, social interaction and communication skills. The majority receive education in mainstream schools and research suggests they are bullied more than typically developing peers. The current study aimed to evaluate factors that predict bullying for such children and also to examine a new measure, the Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS). One hundred and thirty three parents of children with AS completed the SVS and of these 92 parents completed both the SVS and questionnaires measuring anxiety, anger, behaviour problems, social skills and bullying. Regression analyses revealed that these variables together strongly predicted bullying, but that social vulnerability was the strongest predictor. Test-re-test and internal consistency analyses of the SVS demonstrated sound psychometric properties and factor analyses revealed two sub-scales: gullibility and credulity. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions for future research discussed.

PMID:
21430018
DOI:
10.1177/1362361310365070
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2011 Apr;41(4):475-83. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1071-2.

Teasing, ridiculing and the relation to the fear of being laughed at in individuals with Asperger's syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. andrea.samson@stanford.edu

Abstract

The present paper investigated the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia) in relation to recalled experiences of having been laughed at in the past in individuals with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). About 45% of the individuals with AS (N = 40), but only 6% of the controls (N = 83) had at least a slight form of gelotophobia, which is the highest percentage ever found in the literature. Gelotophobia correlated with the frequency and severity of remembered teasing and mocking situations in the past. This indicates that gelotophobia is an important issue in individuals with AS. Furthermore, individuals with AS are less able to laugh at themselves (gelotophilia), but enjoy laughing at others (katagelasticism, a more hostile form of humor) to the same extent as controls do.

PMID:
20661767
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-010-1071-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.
Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs. 2009;32(3):145-54. doi: 10.1080/01460860903062782.

Bullying of students with Asperger syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Special Education, Dowling College, Oakdale, New York 11769, USA. carters@dowling.edu
PMID:
21992104
DOI:
10.1080/01460860903062782
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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9.
J Autism Dev Disord. 2010 Feb;40(2):188-99. doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0849-6. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

BASC-2 PRS profiles for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Counseling, School and Educational Psychology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Abstract

BASC-2 PRS profiles of 62 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) were compared with those of 62 typically-developing children matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. Results indicated that, except for the Somatization, Conduct Problems, and Aggression scales, significant differences were found between the HFASD and typically-developing groups on all PRS scores. Mean HFASD scores were in the clinically significant range on the Behavioral Symptoms Index, Atypicality, Withdrawal, and Developmental Social Disorders scales. At-risk range HFASD means were obtained on the Adaptive Skills composite, all adaptive scales, remaining content scales (except Bullying), and Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, and Depression clinical scales. Screening indices suggested that the Developmental Social Disorders scale was highly effective in differentiating between the two groups.

PMID:
19705267
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-009-0849-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.
Br Med Bull. 2009;89:41-62. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldp006. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Recognition and treatment of Asperger syndrome in the community.

Author information

1
Centre for the Study of Conflict and Reconciliation, School of Health and Related Research, Regent's Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield, UK. D.Tantam@sheffield.ac.uk

Abstract

SOURCES OF DATA:

We conducted a systematic review of the current literature for this review, but as there are many gaps in the research literature, we have supplemented this by our own clinical experience.

AREAS OF AGREEMENT:

There is a general agreement that Asperger syndrome (AS) is one of the autistic spectrum disorders, that it is a developmental disorder which is either present at birth or develops shortly after and that there is a strong hereditary component.

AREAS OF CONTROVERSY:

The fundamental impairment of AS is in the social arena, but what causes this is disputed. We propose that it is a disorder of non-verbal communication. Another important area of controversy is the extent to which AS may remit.

GROWING POINTS:

Many people with AS develop secondary psychiatric disorders in adolescence and adulthood, some of which may be linked genetically, notably bipolar disorder [DeLong R, Nohria C (1994) Psychiatric family history and neurological disease in autistic spectrum disorders. Dev Med Child Neurol, 36, 441-448] or be explicable by some other association, but many patients and carers attribute their anxiety and low mood to bullying. The prevalence, treatment and prevention of co-morbid mental health problems are rapidly developing areas of interest. Some people with AS are known to commit offences, and when they commit they are more likely to be violent offences against strangers. How much of a risk that is presented by people with AS, and how to assess this risk, is another growing area of concern.

AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH:

The social impairments of people with AS include deficits in empathy, self-awareness and executive function. Many of these are quintessentially human characteristics, and the study of people with AS provides opportunities for using neuroimaging to compare people with AS and controls and identify which areas of the brain are concerned with these 'higher functions'. The study of AS, like that of other fronto-striatal disorders, is also throwing light on the role of networks in the brain and on how networks are formed during embryogenesis.

PMID:
19240041
DOI:
10.1093/bmb/ldp006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.
J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008 Oct;36(7):1069-81. doi: 10.1007/s10802-008-9234-8. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Autism spectrum symptomatology in children: the impact of family and peer relationships.

Author information

1
School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. a.kelly@uq.edu.au

Abstract

This study examines the potential impact of family conflict and cohesion, and peer support/bullying on children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While such impacts have been established for a range of non-ASD childhood disorders, these findings may not generalize to children with ASD because of unique problems in perspective-taking, understanding others' emotion, cognitive rigidity, and social reasoning. A structural model-building approach was used to test the extent to which family and peer variables directly or indirectly affected ASD via child anxiety/depression. The sample (N = 322) consisted of parents of children with ASD referred to two specialist clinics. The sample contained parents of children with Autistic Disorder (n = 76), Asperger Disorder (n = 188), Pervasive Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (n = 21), and children with a non-ASD or no diagnosis (n = 37). Parents completed questionnaires on-line via a secure website. The key findings were that anxiety/depression and ASD symptomatology were significantly related, and family conflict was more predictive of ASD symptomatology than positive family/peer influences. The results point to the utility of expanding interventions to include conflict management for couples, even when conflict and family distress is low. Further research is needed on the potentially different meanings of family cohesion and conflict for children with ASD relative to children without ASD.

PMID:
18437549
DOI:
10.1007/s10802-008-9234-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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12.
Sante Ment Que. 2007 Spring;32(1):367-75.

[Elements of a clinical differential diagnosis between Asperger syndrome and the schizoid/paranoid personality].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
Clinique spécialisée de l'autisme, hôpital Rivières des Prairies, et département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal.

Abstract

Individuals with Asperger syndrome may, when exposed to hostility (e.g. bullying at school or at work), develop hostile ideas against their social environment, sometimes leading to aggression. These ideas and acts may be confounded with those arising from a persecutory state in schizoid or schizotypal personality, or even schizophrenia. These entities can be confounded with Asperger syndrome due to their permanent nature, and the presence of atypical social and emotional behaviours. This paper proposes cognitive (Wechsler profile), developmental (course of hostile behaviours), discursive (qualitative features of discourse reporting hostile thoughts), which may contribute to differential diagnosis in the presence of hostile thoughts and behaviours. Consequences for case management are also reported.

PMID:
18253677
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):539-44.

[Asperger syndrome in adolescence: The problem and appropriate treatment].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
National Hospital Organization Sakakibara Hospital

Abstract

I have described the corresponding method for bullying, independence and interpersonal relationships of company/opposite sex, thinking disorders caused by suffering damage or victimization and withdrawal and violence in the family among the problems in and in response to Asperger syndrome in adolescent cases. Psychotherapy is used for bullying and interpersonal relationship problems. Cognitive therapy and protective correspondence are more effective in bullying than the exposure method. It seems to be more effective to teach and instruct the corresponding principle as well as supportive response because interpersonal relationships are likely to involve failures. Pharmacological therapy was valid in feelings of paranoia and violence. Since the disorder has been recently conceptualized in pervasive developmental disorder, the scope of the subject has increased whereas Asperger syndrome used to be diagnosed in compliance with its classic examples. Therefore, it needs to clarify diagnostic examples based on new concepts, accumulate subject examples and verify the corresponding method with evidence.

PMID:
17354573
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
14.
Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Mar;65(3):426-31.

[Asperger's syndrome and medical care].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

1
Tokyo Metropolitan Umegaoka Hospital.

Abstract

Asperger's syndrome has been recognized recently. Diagnosis is done by DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10 or Autistic Spectrum Diagnosis. Medical care is performed by adjustment of environmental atmosphere, educational treatment and/or medication. Patients are cured by parents or teachers who can understand their thinking or behavior pattern. Educational treatment is important to compensate the lack of "mind of theory", of integration of central nervous system and of executive functioning. Medication is applied only secondary symptoms, such as hallucinated or delusional complaints or change of mood or compulsive behavior. Some of this syndrome's patients have excellent abilities and will accomplish great achievement in adult. We need protect them from bullying or secondary social withdrawal in adolescent age.

PMID:
17354552
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
15.
Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs. 2002 Jan-Mar;25(1):43-57.

Middle-class mothers' perceptions of peer and sibling victimization among children with Asperger's syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders.

Author information

1
Family Research Laboratory & Department of Nursing, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824, USA. liza.little@unh.edu

Abstract

This article describes the yearly prevalence and frequency of peer and sibling victimization as reported by a large national sample of middle-class mothers of children with Asperger's syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders. An anonymous, mailed survey was sent to families solicited from two national Internet sites for parents of children with Asperger's and nonverbal learning disorders using the Comprehensive Juvenile Victimization scale and three questions designed to measure peer shunning. The overall prevalence rate reported by mothers of peer victimization was 94%. Mothers reported that almost three-quarters of their children had been hit by peers or siblings in the past year and 75% had been emotionally bullied. On the more severe end of peer victimization, 10% of the children were attacked by a gang in the past year and 15% were victims of nonsexual assaults to the genitals. Peer shunning also was common. A third of the children had not been invited to a single birthday party in the past year, and many were eating alone at lunch or were picked last for teams. Peer shunning was significantly correlated with peer bullying and assault. The high rates of peer shunning and peer victimization reported suggest that children with Asperger's and nonverbal learning disorders may require further scrutiny and attention concerning their victimization experiences by peers and siblings. Implications for nursing professionals are reviewed.

PMID:
11934121
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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