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J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2010 Dec;53(6):1579-94. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0173). Epub 2010 Aug 10.

Systematic studies of modified vocalization: effects of speech rate and instatement style during metronome stimulation.

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Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549, USA.



This study introduces a series of systematic investigations intended to clarify the parameters of the fluency-inducing conditions (FICs) in stuttering.


Participants included 11 adults, aged 20-63 years, with typical speech-production skills. A repeated measures design was used to examine the relationships between several speech production variables (vowel duration, voice onset time, fundamental frequency, intraoral pressure, pressure rise time, transglottal airflow, and phonated intervals) and speech rate and instatement style during metronome-entrained rhythmic speech.


Measures of duration (vowel duration, voice onset time, and pressure rise time) differed across different metronome conditions. When speech rates were matched between the control condition and metronome condition, voice onset time was the only variable that changed.


Results confirm that speech rate and instatement style can influence speech production variables during the production of fluency-inducing conditions. Future studies of normally fluent speech and of stuttered speech must control both features and should further explore the importance of voice onset time, which may be influenced by rate during metronome stimulation in a way that the other variables are not.

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