Send to

Choose Destination
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2013 Nov-Dec;59(6):589-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ramb.2013.06.014. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Association between primary headaches and depression in young adults in southern Brazil.

[Article in English, Portuguese]

Author information

Departmente of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:



To verify the association between depression and headache in young adults, as well as to identify the features of headache associated with depression and the influence of this mood disorder on headache-related disability.


A cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires about headache and depression was conducted at the Universidade de Caxias do Sul. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) were used to evaluate depressive symptoms and headache-related disability, respectively. Depression was considered if BDI ≥ 15.


A thousand and thirteen young adults were included in the study. A clear relationship was observed between headache and depression among the participants. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that nausea or vomiting related to headache and higher headache-related disability scores were independent factors associated with depression. Migraine was more associated with depression than the other types of headache.


The results demonstrate an association between headache and depression. Depressive symptoms are more likely to be found in young adults with more disabling headaches.


Cefaleia; Cefaleia tensional; Depression; Depressão; Disability; Enxaqueca; Headache; Incapacidade; Migraine; Tension-type headache

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Scientific Electronic Library Online
Loading ...
Support Center