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J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 28;286(4):2445-54. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.189456. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

The intra-S phase checkpoint protein Tof1 collaborates with the helicase Rrm3 and the F-box protein Dia2 to maintain genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.


The intra-S phase checkpoint protein complex Tof1/Csm3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae antagonizes Rrm3 helicase to modulate replication fork arrest not only at the replication termini of rDNA but also at strong nonhistone protein binding sites throughout the genome. We investigated whether these checkpoint proteins acted either antagonistically or synergistically with Rrm3 in mediating other important functions such as maintenance of genome stability. High retromobility of a normally quiescent retrovirus-like transposable element Ty1 of S. cerevisiae is a form of genome instability, because the transposition events induce mutations. We measured the transposition of Ty1 in various genetic backgrounds and discovered that Tof1 suppressed excessive retromobility in collaboration with either Rrm3 or the F-box protein Dia2. Although both Rrm3 and Dia2 are believed to facilitate fork movement, fork stalling at DNA-protein complexes did not appear to be a major contributor to enhancement of retromobility. Absence of the aforementioned proteins either individually or in pair-wise combinations caused karyotype changes as revealed by the altered migrations of the individual chromosomes in pulsed field gels. The mobility changes were RNase H-resistant and therefore, unlikely to have been caused by extensive R loop formation. These mutations also resulted in alterations of telomere lengths. However, the latter changes could not fully account for the magnitude of the observed karyotypic alterations. We conclude that unlike other checkpoint proteins that are known to be required for elevated retromobility, Tof1 suppressed high frequency retrotransposition and maintained karyotype stability in collaboration with the aforementioned proteins.

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