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Addiction. 2008 Sep;103(9):1461-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02245.x. Epub 2008 Jul 10.

The impact of alcohol use on depressive symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

Author information

1
Yale University School of Medicine, 367 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. lynn.sullivan@yale.edu

Abstract

AIMS:

To examine the impact of alcohol use on depressive symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.

DESIGN:

Data were collected at 6-month intervals and analyzed to evaluate the association between alcohol dependence and consumption on depressive symptoms using longitudinal mixed-effects regression models controlling for specified covariates.

MEASUREMENTS:

The two independent variables were current alcohol dependence assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and past month consumption (heavy versus not heavy drinking) using a validated calendar-based method. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

PARTICIPANTS:

HIV-infected adults with current or past alcohol problems.

FINDINGS:

Alcohol dependence and heavy alcohol use were significantly associated with higher CES-D scores in unadjusted models. In adjusted analyses, the association of current alcohol dependence persisted [mean difference in CES-D was 3.49 for dependence versus non-dependence; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.76-5.22]; however, the effect of heavy drinking was no longer statistically significant (mean difference in CES-D was 1.04 for heavy versus not heavy drinking; 95% CI: -0.24-2.32).

CONCLUSIONS:

Alcohol use is associated with more depressive symptoms in HIV-infected patients with alcohol problems. This association remains significant after adjusting for potential confounders only when alcohol use meets the criteria for alcohol dependence.

PMID:
18637000
PMCID:
PMC2661114
DOI:
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02245.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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