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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Nov;71(11):3242-3249. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Oral decontamination with aminoglycosides is associated with lower risk of mortality and infections in high-risk patients colonized with colistin-resistant, KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Author information

1
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía-IMIBIC-Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.
2
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena and Virgen del Rocío - IBiS, and Department of Medicine, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.
3
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario de Jerez, Cádiz, Spain.
4
Unit of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía-IMIBIC-Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.
5
Unit of Haematology, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía-IMIBIC-Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain.
6
Unit of Haematology, Hospital Universitario de Jerez, Cádiz, Spain.
7
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena and Virgen del Rocío - IBiS, and Department of Medicine, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain jesusrb@us.es.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Invasive infections caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPCKP) are associated with very high mortality. Because infection is usually preceded by rectal colonization, we investigated if decolonization therapy (DT) with aminoglycosides had a protective effect in selected patients.

METHODS:

Patients with rectal colonization by colistin-resistant KPCKP who were at high risk of developing infection (because of neutropenia, surgery, previous recurrent KPCKP infections or multiple comorbidities) were followed for 180 days. Cox regression analysis including a propensity score was used to investigate the impact of the use of two intestinal decolonization regimens with oral aminoglycosides (gentamicin and neomycin/streptomycin) on mortality, risk of KPCKP infections and microbiological success. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02604849).

RESULTS:

The study sample comprised 77 colonized patients, of which 44 (57.1%) received DT. At 180 days of follow-up, decolonization was associated with a lower risk of mortality in multivariate analyses (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.55) and a lower risk of KPCKP infections (HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.83) and increased microbiological success (HR 4.06; 95% CI 1.06-15.6). Specifically, gentamicin oral therapy was associated with a lower risk of crude mortality (HR 0.15; 95% CI 0.04-0.54), a lower risk of KPCKP infections (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.008-0.94) and increased microbiological response at 180 days of follow-up (HR 5.67; 95% CI 1.33-24.1). Neomycin/streptomycin therapy was only associated with a lower risk of crude mortality (HR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06-0.9).

CONCLUSIONS:

Intestinal decolonization with aminoglycosides is associated with a reduction in crude mortality and KPCKP infections at 180 days after initiating treatment.

PMID:
27494911
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkw272
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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