Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):e1489-94. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2652. Epub 2008 May 19.

Is antibiotic prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux effective in preventing pyelonephritis and renal scars? A randomized, controlled trial.

Author information

1
Clinica Pediatrica, Istituto per l'Infanzia IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell'Istria 65/1, 34100 Trieste, Italy. pennesi@burlo.trieste.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

There has been intense discussion on the effectiveness of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis for children with vesicoureteral reflux, and randomized, controlled trials are still needed to determine the effectiveness of long-term antibiotics for the prevention of acute pyelonephritis. In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we tested the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence of pyelonephritis and avoiding new scars in a sample of children who were younger than 30 months and vesicoureteral reflux.

METHODS:

One hundred patients with vesicoureteral reflux (grade II, III, or IV) diagnosed with cystourethrography after a first episode of acute pyelonephritis were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic prophylaxis with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim or not for 2 years. The main outcome of the study was the recurrence of pyelonephritis during a follow-up period of 4 years. During follow-up, the patients were evaluated through repeated cystourethrographies, renal ultrasounds, and dimercaptosuccinic acid scans.

RESULTS:

The baseline characteristics in the 2 study groups were similar. There were no differences in the risk for having at least 1 pyelonephritis episode between the intervention and control groups. At the end of follow-up, the presence of renal scars was the same in children with and without antibiotic prophylaxis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was ineffective in reducing the rate of pyelonephritis recurrence and the incidence of renal damage in children who were younger than 30 months and had vesicoureteral reflux grades II through IV.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00382343.

PMID:
18490378
DOI:
10.1542/peds.2007-2652
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center