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Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Jan;18(1):6-15. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.11.014. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC first international conference on late effects after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: persistent immune deficiency in pediatric transplant survivors.

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Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104, USA.


Defective immune reconstitution is a major barrier to successful hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and has important implications in the pediatric population. There are many factors that affect immune recovery, including stem cell source and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Complete assessment of immune recovery, including T and B lymphocyte evaluation, innate immunity, and response to neoantigens, may provide insight as to infection risk and optimal time for immunizations. The increasing use of cord blood grafts requires additional study regarding early reconstitution and impact upon survival. Immunization schedules may require modification based upon stem cell source and immune reconstitution, and this is of particular importance as many children have been incompletely immunized, or not at all, before school entry. Additional studies are needed in children post-HCT to evaluate the impact of differing stem cell sources upon immune reconstitution, infectious risks, and immunization responses.

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