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J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jul;49(7):2496-501. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02503-10. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in 20 Chinese hospitals.

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Department of General Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.


A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected extended-spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC) producers were examined for genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. Forty-three isolates harboring bla(CTX-M-14) or bla(CTX-M-15) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and plasmids containing these genes were typed using PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Thirteen phylogroup B2 bla(CTX-M-14)- and bla(CTX-M-15)-positive isolates were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A frequent occurrence of resistance (>46%) was observed toward cephalosporins, gentamicin, and fluoroquinolones. Among the 222 isolates, 4 qnrS1, 4 qepA, and 16 aac(6')-Ib-cr genes were confirmed. Four major phylogroups (A, B1, B2, and D) and nontypeable isolates (NTs) were found among the isolates, with phylogroup D (54%) being the most common phylogroup. A total of 110 (80%) of the 138 screened isolates harbored bla(CTX-M) genes, with bla(CTX-M-14) (71%) and bla(CTX-M-15) (24%) being the most prevalent of these genes. Nine of the 13 CTX-M-15- or CTX-M-14-containing B2 isolates belonged to ST131. PFGE typing showed a high level of diversity, and plasmid analysis indicated a very large pool of different resistance plasmids mediating the spread of bla(CTX-M) genes in mainland China. An equally very high frequency of resistance and equally high levels of diversity in phylogroups, PFGE types, and plasmids were observed among community- and hospital-acquired E. coli isolates, indicating the presence of a large reservoir in the community and a long-term spread of cephalosporin resistance in China.

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