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J Water Health. 2010 Mar;8(1):166-83. doi: 10.2166/wh.2009.111.

Modelling latrine diffusion in Benin: towards a community typology of demand for improved sanitation in developing countries.

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


Latrine diffusion patterns across 502 villages in Benin, West Africa, were analysed to explore factors driving initial and increasing levels of household adoption in low-coverage rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Variables explaining adoption related to population density, size, infrastructure/services, non-agricultural occupations, road and urban proximity, and the nearby latrine adoption rate, capturing differences in the physical and social environment, lifestyles and latrine exposure involved in stimulating status/prestige and well-being reasons for latrine adoption. Contagion was most important in explaining adoption initiation. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct village typologies of demand for latrines which provide a framework for tailoring promotional interventions to better match the different sanitation demand characteristics of communities in scaling-up sanitation development and promotion programmes.

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