Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Urology. 2015 Sep;86(3):587-92. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2015.06.028. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Factors Associated With the Lower Prevalence of Nephrolithiasis in Children Compared With Adults.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Renal Lithiasis Research, University Institute of Health Sciences Research (IUNICS-IdISPa), University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Electronic address: fgrases@uib.es.
2
Laboratory of Renal Lithiasis Research, University Institute of Health Sciences Research (IUNICS-IdISPa), University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
3
Laboratory of Renal Lithiasis Research, University Institute of Health Sciences Research (IUNICS-IdISPa), University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
4
Laboratory Department, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
5
Research Unit, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the reasons behind the lower prevalence of kidney stones in children by assessing urinary lithogenic parameters in healthy children, healthy adults, and 3 groups of stone-former patients.

METHODS:

The study subjects included 75 healthy adults, 105 healthy children, 62 patients with previous calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary stones, 120 patients with previous calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached stones, and 248 patients with previous calcium oxalate dihydrate stones. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected, and the urinary lithogenic parameters were measured.

RESULTS:

Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous concentration differed significantly between healthy children and adults. Except citrate, all solute/creatinine ratios differed between healthy children and adults. However, these differences were much more important in the cases of calcium and magnesium. The calcium/creatinine ratio was 2-fold lower, whereas the magnesium/creatinine ratio was 2-fold higher, in healthy children than that in healthy adults (P <.001 each). The calcium/creatinine ratio was higher and the citrate/creatinine ratio lower in calcium oxalate dihydrate stone formers than that in healthy adults.

CONCLUSION:

Ratios of calcium and magnesium to creatinine, as well as morphoanatomic factors and lifestyle habits, may explain the lower prevalence of nephrolithiasis in children than those in adults.

PMID:
26144339
DOI:
10.1016/j.urology.2015.06.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center