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J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010 Dec;19(8):1175-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2010.05.021. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Hand-held dynamometer testing of the internal and external rotator musculature based on selected positions to establish normative data and unilateral ratios.

Author information

1
Department of Health Sciences, Armstrong Atlantic State University, Savannah, GA 31419, USA. Bryan.Riemann@armstrong.edu

Abstract

HYPOTHESIS:

Objective documentation is needed of shoulder internal and external rotator strength using hand-held dynamometry in selected positions commonly used in a clinic. We compared strength measures and unilateral ratios between gender, limbs (dominant, nondominant), and 3 testing positions. We hypothesized that men would be stronger than women, the dominant shoulder would be stronger than the nondominant shoulder, and the seated neutral (0° adduction) and seated 30° abduction, 30° scaption, 30° diagonal (30°-30°-30°) positions would be stronger than the prone at 90°-90° position.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Three positions (prone at 90°, seated at neutral, and seated at 30°-30°-30°) were evaluated in 181 individuals using hand-held dynamometry. Three separate 3-factor (limb by position by gender) analyses of variance were conducted on internal rotation, external rotation, and unilateral ratios.

RESULTS:

Although the dominant limb was significantly stronger (P < .001) than the nondominant for internal rotation, there was no difference for external rotation. The external rotators demonstrated significantly greater strength in the prone at 90° position compared with the seated at neutral (P = .001) and seated at 30°-30°-30° (P = .002) positions. The internal rotators demonstrated significantly greater (P = .036) strength in the neutral position than in the prone at 90° position for the women. The unilateral ratio of external rotators/internal rotators ranged from 86% to 99%. For the women, the prone at 90° ratio was significantly greater than seated at neutral (P = .001) and seated at 30°-30°-30° (P = .001) positions. Moderate strength relationships (r = 0.506 to 0.572) were revealed between body mass and all strength measures.

DISCUSSION:

The results of this study provide evidence to interpret normative data, bilateral comparisons and unilateral ratios of the internal/external rotators in the 3 selected positions.

CONCLUSION:

Because there are no differences between the seated at neutral and 30°-30°-30° positions and the advantages it offers, we recommend the 30°-30°-30° position for testing and the initiation of rehabilitation.

PMID:
20850997
DOI:
10.1016/j.jse.2010.05.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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