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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Feb 1;38(2):156-62.

Buffalo hump seen in HIV-associated lipodystrophy is associated with hyperinsulinemia but not dyslipidemia.

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1
National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. pmallon@nchecr.unsw.edu.au

Abstract

Accumulation of dorsocervical fat, or a "buffalo hump" (BH), is commonly reported in adults with HIV-associated lipodystrophy (HIVLD). The pathogenesis underlying this aspect of a syndrome characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from other body sites is poorly understood. We aimed to identify risk factors for a BH in HIV-infected adults in cross-sectional analyses of 2 HIV-infected ambulatory populations. The first group (Australian Lipodystrophy Prevalence Survey [APS]) consisted of 1348 Australian HIV-infected adults (95% male) irrespective of changes in body composition. The second group (Lipodystrophy Case Definition [LDCD] study) comprised 417 subjects (83% male) with at least 1 reported moderate or severe feature of HIVLD. A BH was reported in 24 (2%) APS subjects and 79 (19%) LDCD study subjects. A BH was not an isolated finding. Patients with a BH had a high prevalence of other features of HIVLD, similar to lipodystrophic patients without a BH, such as facial lipoatrophy reported in 100% and 61% BH-positive subjects from the APS and LDCD study, respectively. In both groups, those with a BH had higher fasting insulin (P<or=0.007), a higher body mass index (P<or=0.003), a higher waist/hip ratio (P<or=0.001), higher limb fat (P<or=0.003), and higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). On multivariate analysis, higher serum insulin, systolic blood pressure, age, and duration of exposure to ritonavir were independently associated with a BH in the APS group. In the LDCD group, higher insulin, diastolic blood pressure, and duration of exposure to zidovudine were independently associated with a BH. There was no association between a BH and hyperlipidemia. These data show that a BH is associated with other physical features of the lipodystrophy phenotype and suggest that hyperinsulinemia, a feature common to HIVLD, obesity, and hypercortisolism, is an important component of this phenotype, thus warranting closer monitoring of BH-positive patients for glucose intolerance and diabetes.

PMID:
15671800
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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