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Tob Control. 2011 Jul;20(4):285-90. doi: 10.1136/tc.2010.040220. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Tobacco sales and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs from large cities around the world.

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  • 1Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.



Little is known about tobacco promotion activities in low and middle-income countries. Information on tobacco sales, advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs is needed to develop interventions to reduce smoking initiation and relapse, particularly among youths and young adults.


To evaluate cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs using a volunteer survey approach in large cities throughout the world.


Between 2007 and 2009, we administered an interview-based survey to 231 bar/cafe/nightclub owners/managers in 24 large cities in Africa, the Americas, Asia and eastern Europe.


Cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotions were found in bars/cafes/nightclubs in most cities. Examples of promotions included cigarette giveaways and event sponsorship. Establishments that allowed smoking were more likely to sell cigarettes compared to smoke-free establishments (OR 8.67, 95% CI 3.25 to 23.1). Larger establishments (maximum occupancy ≥ 100 vs <100 customers) were more likely to have tobacco advertising (OR 4.35, 95% CI 2.04 to 9.24) and to receive promotional items from tobacco companies (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.41 to 7.17).


Cigarette sales and tobacco promotions were common in bars, cafes and nightclubs in the majority of cities. Socialising and hospitality venues must be covered by legislation banning tobacco sales and promotions to limit exposure among populations at high risk of tobacco initiation and relapse from quitting.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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