Send to

Choose Destination

See 1 citation in Endocrinology 2011:

Endocrinology. 2011 Jun;152(6):2256-65. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-0173. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

The conundrum of estrogen receptor oscillatory activity in the search for an appropriate hormone replacement therapy.

Author information

Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases and Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.


By the use of in vivo imaging, we investigated the dynamics of estrogen receptor (ER) activity in intact, ovariectomized, and hormone-replaced estrogen response element-luciferase reporter mice. The study revealed the existence of a long-paced, noncircadian oscillation of ER transcriptional activity. Among the ER-expressing organs, this oscillation was asynchronous and its amplitude and period were tissue dependent. Ovariectomy affected the amplitude but did not suppress ER oscillations, suggesting the presence of tissue endogenous oscillators. Long-term administration of raloxifene, bazedoxifene, combined estrogens alone or with basedoxifene to ovariectomized estrogen response element-luciferase mice showed that each treatment induced a distinct spatiotemporal profile of ER activity, demonstrating that the phasing of ER activity among tissues may be regulated by the chemical nature and the concentration of circulating estrogen. This points to the possibility of a hierarchical organization of the tissue-specific pacemakers. Conceivably, the rhythm of ER transcriptional activity translates locally into the activation of specific gene networks enabling ER to significantly change its physiological activity according to circulating estrogens. In reproductive and nonreproductive organs this hierarchical regulation may provide ER with the signaling plasticity necessary to drive the complex metabolic changes occurring at each female reproductive status. We propose that the tissue-specific oscillatory activity here described is an important component of ER signaling necessary for the full hormone action including the beneficial effects reported for nonreproductive organs. Thus, this mechanism needs to be taken in due consideration to develop novel, more efficacious, and safer hormone replacement therapies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center