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J Magn Reson. 2000 May;144(1):96-107.

Correlation time and diffusion coefficient imaging: application to a granular flow system.

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New Mexico Resonance, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA.


A parametric method for spatially resolved measurements for velocity autocorrelation functions, R(u)(tau) = <u(t)u(t + tau)>, expressed as a sum of exponentials, is presented. The method is applied to a granular flow system of 2-mm oil-filled spheres rotated in a half-filled horizontal cylinder, which is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with velocity autocorrelation function R(u)(tau) = <u(2)>e(- ||tau ||/tau(c)), where tau(c) is the correlation time and D = <u(2)>tau(c) is the diffusion coefficient. The pulsed-field-gradient NMR method consists of applying three different gradient pulse sequences of varying motion sensitivity to distinguish the range of correlation times present for particle motion. Time-dependent apparent diffusion coefficients are measured for these three sequences and tau(c) and D are then calculated from the apparent diffusion coefficient images. For the cylinder rotation rate of 2.3 rad/s, the axial diffusion coefficient at the top center of the free surface was 5.5 x 10(-6) m(2)/s, the correlation time was 3 ms, and the velocity fluctuation or granular temperature <u(2)> was 1.8 x 10(-3) m(2)/s(2). This method is also applicable to study transport in systems involving turbulence and porous media flows.

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