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Brain Circ. 2017 Apr-Jun;3(2):114-120. doi: 10.4103/bc.bc_5_17. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Doppler sonographic assessment of carotid arteries in Sudanese stroke patients.

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Department of Surgery, Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan.
Diagnostic Radiological Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan.



Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking were considered to be associated with several public health problems.


the study aims to explore the hemodynamic of carotid arteries in association with hypertension, diabetes, and smoking in Sudanese stroke patients.


In a quantitative descriptive study, fifty patients with stroke were scanned by B-mode and Doppler sonography. Carotid arteries were investigated with a 7-MHz linear transducer by a standard carotid sonography protocol.


The average Doppler resistive index (RI) was 0.71 ± 0.084 and intima-media thickness was 1.39 ± 0.78 mm. The end diastolic velocities (EDVs) and peak systolic velocities (PSVs) of common carotid arteries were significantly changed in smokers and hypertensive (P < 0.05). The elevation of RI in right and left CCAs were significantly correlated with smokers (P = 0.017 and 0.010 respectively). Hemorrhagic stroke was most prevalent in hypertensive rather than diabetic and smokers. The carotid hemodynamics changed significantly in hypertensive and smokers more than diabetics.


EDV and PSV were significantly correlated with hypertension and tobacco smoking rather than diabetes. Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking have an association with stroke and hand significant effect on carotid artery hemodynamic and atherosclerotic disease. The Doppler RIs were significantly correlated with smokers. Patients with risk factors of stroke should be scanned with Doppler sonography as early as possible.


Assessment; Doppler; Sudanese patients; carotid arteries; sonographic; stroke

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