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Nurs Womens Health. 2018 Feb;22(1):52-62. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2017.12.008.

A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.


Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population.


FTM individual; Pap test; cervical cancer screening; female-to-male; transgender

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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