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Front Hum Neurosci. 2012 Feb 24;6:27. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00027. eCollection 2012.

A selective review of multimodal fusion methods in schizophrenia.

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The Mind Research Network Albuquerque, NM, USA.


Schizophrenia (SZ) is one of the most cryptic and costly mental disorders in terms of human suffering and societal expenditure (van Os and Kapur, 2009). Though strong evidence for functional, structural, and genetic abnormalities associated with this disease exists, there is yet no replicable finding which has proven accurate enough to be useful in clinical decision making (Fornito et al., 2009), and its diagnosis relies primarily upon symptom assessment (Williams et al., 2010a). It is likely in part that the lack of consistent neuroimaging findings is because most models favor only one data type or do not combine data from different imaging modalities effectively, thus missing potentially important differences which are only partially detected by each modality (Calhoun et al., 2006a). It is becoming increasingly clear that multimodal fusion, a technique which takes advantage of the fact that each modality provides a limited view of the brain/gene and may uncover hidden relationships, is an important tool to help unravel the black box of schizophrenia. In this review paper, we survey a number of multimodal fusion applications which enable us to study the schizophrenia macro-connectome, including brain functional, structural, and genetic aspects and may help us understand the disorder in a more comprehensive and integrated manner. We also provide a table that characterizes these applications by the methods used and compare these methods in detail, especially for multivariate models, which may serve as a valuable reference that helps readers select an appropriate method based on a given research question.


CCA; DTI; EEG; ICA; MRI; SNP; multimodal fusion; schizophrenia

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