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J Biol Chem. 1998 Jan 16;273(3):1339-48.

An alternate promoter directs expression of a truncated, muscle-specific isoform of the human ankyrin 1 gene.

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Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8021, USA.


Ankyrin 1, an erythrocyte membrane protein that links the underlying cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, is also expressed in brain and muscle. We cloned a truncated, muscle-specific ankyrin 1 cDNA composed of novel 5' sequences and 3' sequences previously identified in the last 3 exons of the human ankyrin 1 erythroid gene. Northern blot analysis revealed expression restricted to cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. Deduced amino acid sequence of this muscle cDNA predicted a peptide of 155 amino acids in length with a hydrophobic NH2 terminus. Cloning of the corresponding chromosomal gene revealed that the ankyrin 1 muscle transcript is composed of four exons spread over approximately 10 kilobase pairs of DNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of skeletal muscle cDNA identified multiple cDNA isoforms created by alternative splicing. The ankyrin 1 muscle promoter was identified as a (G + C)-rich promoter located > 200 kilobase pairs from the ankyrin 1 erythroid promoter. An ankyrin 1 muscle promoter fragment directed high level expression of a reporter gene in cultured C2C12 muscle cells, but not in HeLa or K562 (erythroid) cells. DNA-protein interactions were identified in vitro at a single Sp1 and two E box consensus binding sites contained within the promoter. A MyoD cDNA expression plasmid transactivated an ankyrin 1 muscle promoter fragment/reporter gene plasmid in a dose-dependent fashion in both HeLa and K562 cells. A polyclonal antibody raised to human ankyrin 1 muscle-specific sequences reacted with peptides of 28 and 30 kDa on immunoblots of human skeletal muscle.

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