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J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997 Oct;79(10):1519-28.

Modulation of the production of cytokines in titanium-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes by pharmacological agents. The role of cAMP-mediated signaling mechanisms.

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Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York 14642, USA.


Cytokines secreted by activated macrophages play a role in the development of osteolysis adjacent to prosthetic joints. To determine whether the synthesis of cytokines can be inhibited by pharmacological agents, we studied the role of the cAMP-protein kinase A signal transduction pathway in the synthesis of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and examined the effect of potential pharmacological regulators of this pathway in human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with titanium particles. Dibutyryl cAMP enhanced the synthesis of interleukin-6 by titanium-stimulated monocytes and resulted in a marked increase (maximum, seventyfold) in the synthesis of interleukin-6 even in the absence of titanium particles. However, the active analogs (agonists) of cAMP, dibutyryl cAMP and Sp cAMP, inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by titanium-stimulated monocytes (the maximum effects resulted in complete inhibition), while the cAMP antagonist, Rp cAMP, enhanced the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Additional agents that alter the intracellular levels of cAMP were examined for their effects on the synthesis of cytokines. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 were potent inhibitors of the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha but stimulated the synthesis of interleukin-6. In contrast, indomethacin enhanced the stimulatory effects of titanium particles on tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resulting in a more than threefold increase in the maximum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, such as isobutyryl methylxanthine and pentoxifylline, which increase intracellular levels of cAMP, caused a decrease in the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and an increase in the production of interleukin-6. In contrast, the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which is also a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the synthesis of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by titanium-stimulated monocytes, suggesting that ciprofloxacin suppresses the synthesis of interleukin-6 through a mechanism that is independent of cAMP.

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