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Molecules. 2020 Mar 17;25(6). pii: E1366. doi: 10.3390/molecules25061366.

Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responsive to Drought and Low Temperature Stress in a Hard Red Spring Wheat Cultivar.

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Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.
Department of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry (TESAF), Research Group in Plant Pathology, University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
Department of Chemical Sciences, Organic Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.


Drought stress is becoming more prevalent with global warming, and has been shown tohave large effects on gluten proteins linked to wheat bread making quality. Likewise, lowtemperature stress can detrimentally affect proteins in wheat. This study was done to determine thedifferential abundance of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin proteins in a drought and lowtemperature stressed high quality hard red spring wheat cultivar (PAN3478), against a control. Thetreatments were applied in the greenhouse at the soft dough stage. HMW glutenin proteins wereextracted from the flour, and were separated by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteinspots that had p values lower than 0.05 and fold values equal to or greater than 1.2 were consideredto be significantly differentially abundant. These proteins were further analyzed by using tandemmass spectrometry. There was a 1.3 to 1.8 fold change in 17 protein spots due to the cold treatment.The drought treatment caused a 1.3 to 3.8 fold change in 19 protein spots. These spots matchedeither HMW or low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits. In the latter case, the C subunits ofLMW glutenins were notably found to be up-regulated under both stress conditions. All the proteinsthat have been identified can directly influence dough characteristics. Data are available viaProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD017578.


abiotic stress; bread wheat; glutenin; proteomics

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