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Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2020 Jan 2;18(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12955-019-1245-3.

Assessing quality of life in older adults: psychometric properties of the OPQoL-brief questionnaire in a nursing home population.

Author information

NTNU Center for health promotion research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
Faculty of Health and Social Science, Western University of Applied Science, Bergen, Norway.
University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
NTNU Center for health promotion research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Faculty of Nursing, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey.
Social Worker, Kyambogo University and Butabika National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
Department of Teacher Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.



Well-adapted and validated quality-of-life measurement models for the nursing home population are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the psychometrical properties of the OPQoL-brief questionnaire among cognitively intact nursing home residents. The research question addressed evidence related to the dimensionality, reliability and construct validity, all of which considered interrelated measurement properties.


Cross-sectional data were collected during 2017-2018, in 27 nursing homes representing four different Norwegian municipalities, located in Western and Mid-Norway. The total sample comprised 188 of 204 (92% response rate) long-term nursing home residents who met the inclusion criteria: (1) municipality authority's decision of long-term nursing home care; (2) residential time 3 months or longer; (3) informed consent competency recognized by responsible doctor and nurse; and (4) capable of being interviewed.


Principal component analysis and confirmative factor analyses indicated a unidimensional solution. Five of the original 13 items showed low reliability and validity; excluding these items revealed a good model fit for the one-dimensional 8-items measurement model, showing good internal consistency and validity for these 8 items.


Five out of the 13 original items were not high-quality indicators of quality-of-life showing low reliability and validity in this nursing home population. Significant factor loadings, goodness-of-fit indices and significant correlations in the expected directions with the selected constructs (anxiety, depression, self-transcendence, meaning-in-life, nurse-patient interaction, and joy-of-life) supported the psychometric properties of the OPQoL-brief questionnaire. Exploring the essence of quality-of-life when residing in a nursing home is highly warranted, followed by development and validation of new tools assessing quality-of-life in this population. Such knowledge and well-adapted scales for the nursing home population are beneficial and important for the further development of care quality in nursing homes, and consequently for quality-of-life and wellbeing in this population.


Factor analysis; Nursing home care; Nursing home residents; OPQoL-brief questionnaire; Psychometric properties; Quality of life; Wellbeing

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