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J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019 Oct 23. pii: S1525-8610(19)30611-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.08.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Pain Assessment for Older Persons in Nursing Home Care: An Evidence-Based Practice Guideline.

Author information

1
Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Vallendar, Vallendar, Germany.
2
Malteser Krankenhaus Seliger Gerhard, Bonn/Rhein-Sieg, Bonn, Germany.
3
St Marienhospital, Friesoythe, Germany.
4
Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität, Salzburg, Austria.
5
Kolleg, Universität Witten, Herdecke, Germany.
6
Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften, Hamburg, Germany.
7
Evangelische Hochschule Dresden (ehs), Dresden, Germany. Electronic address: Thomas.Fischer@ehs-dresden.de.

Abstract

Up to 80% of nursing home residents are affected by pain. Pain assessment aims to determine pain intensity, quality, and course of pain to underpin diagnostic decision making. In the nursing home population, pain assessment is frequently compromised by cognitive impairment. Characteristics of the nursing home setting, such as resident's age, staff skill mix, and overall aims of the care provided, also need to be taken into account. Therefore, an interdisciplinary evidence-based clinical practice guideline for pain assessment in the nursing home setting was developed. A systematic literature search was carried out covering publications between 2003 and 2015. Thirty-nine studies were included in the preparation of this guideline, supplemented by 12 international reference guidelines. Recommendations were subjected to a structured consensus-finding process with representatives from 37 scientific and professional organizations and patient representatives. The guideline underwent independent peer review before finalization. It comprises 62 recommendations that are grouped into 4 chapters: (1) context of pain assessment in nursing home care; (2) screening; (3) focused assessment; and (4) reassessment/monitoring of pain. Main recommendations stipulate that clinicians should assess the patient's ability to provide self-report of pain when screening for pain and that each resident should be screened for the presence of pain. A focused assessment of pain, performed during rest and activities, should include pain intensity, changed behaviors, general mobility, pain history, comorbidities, and pain medication. Pain should be re-assessed at regular intervals using the same instruments that were used for the focused assessment. Guideline development demonstrated that many aspects of pain assessment in older persons have not received adequate research attention so far. Available studies predominantly possess only low levels of evidence. Therefore, research into this area needs to be systematically developed to address questions of clinical relevance to support patient care.

KEYWORDS:

Pain; guideline; nursing home; older adults; pain assessment; pain monitoring; pain screening

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