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BMC Public Health. 2019 Aug 30;19(1):1199. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7532-4.

Dying in long-term care facilities in Europe: the PACE epidemiological study of deceased residents in six countries.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine & Chronic Care, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) & Ghent University, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090, Brussels, Belgium. elisabeth.honinx@vub.be.
2
Department of Family Medicine & Chronic Care, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) & Ghent University, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090, Brussels, Belgium. nanjavandop@gmail.com.
3
Department of Family Medicine & Chronic Care, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) & Ghent University, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090, Brussels, Belgium.
4
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
5
International Observatory on End of Life Care, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Istituto di Medicina Interna e Geriatria, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito, 1, 00135, Rome, Italy.
7
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, P.O. Box 30, FI-00271, Helsinki, Finland.
8
Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Expertise Center for Palliative Care, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorstraat 7, 1081 BT, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Sociology of Medicine, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Kopernika 7a, 31-034, Kraków, Poland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

By 2030, 30% of the European population will be aged 60 or over and those aged 80 and above will be the fastest growing cohort. An increasing number of people will die at an advanced age with multiple chronic diseases. In Europe at present, between 12 and 38% of the oldest people die in a long-term care facility. The lack of nationally representative empirical data, either demographic or clinical, about people who die in long-term care facilities makes appropriate policy responses more difficult. Additionally, there is a lack of comparable cross-country data; the opportunity to compare and contrast data internationally would allow for a better understanding of both common issues and country-specific challenges and could help generate hypotheses about different options regarding policy, health care organization and provision. The objectives of this study are to describe the demographic, facility stay and clinical characteristics of residents dying in long-term care facilities and the differences between countries.

METHODS:

Epidemiological study (2015) in a proportionally stratified random sample of 322 facilities in Belgium, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and England. The final sample included 1384 deceased residents. The sampled facilities received a letter introducing the project and asking for voluntary participation. Facility manager, nursing staff member and treating physician completed structured questionnaires for all deaths in the preceding 3 months.

RESULTS:

Of 1384 residents the average age at death ranged from 81 (Poland) to 87 (Belgium, England) (p < 0.001) and length of stay from 6 months (Poland, Italy) to 2 years (Belgium) (p < 0.05); 47% (the Netherlands) to 74% (Italy) had more than two morbidities and 60% (England) to 83% (Finland) dementia, with a significant difference between countries (p < 0.001). Italy and Poland had the highest percentages with poor functional and cognitive status 1 month before death (BANS-S score of 21.8 and 21.9 respectively). Clinical complications occurred often during the final month (51.9% England, 66.4% Finland and Poland).

CONCLUSIONS:

The population dying in long-term care facilities is complex, displaying multiple diseases with cognitive and functional impairment and high levels of dementia. We recommend future policy should include integration of high-quality palliative and dementia care.

KEYWORDS:

End-of-life care; Long-term care facility; Nursing homes; Palliative care; Policy

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