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Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jun 28;690:853-866. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.443. [Epub ahead of print]

1,4-Dioxane as an emerging water contaminant: State of the science and evaluation of research needs.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States. Electronic address: krystal.pollitt@yale.edu.
2
Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
3
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States; Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, United States.
4
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States.
5
Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), Boston, MA 02111, United States.
6
Stratford Health Department, Stratford, CT 06615, United States.
7
Office of Public Health Practice, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States.
8
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States; Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT 06511, United States.
9
Department of Pathology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, United States.
10
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado School of Pharmacy, Aurora, CO 80045, United States.
11
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, United States. Electronic address: vasilis.vasiliou@yale.edu.

Abstract

1,4-Dioxane has historically been used to stabilize chlorinated solvents and more recently has been found as a contaminant of numerous consumer and food products. Once discharged into the environment, its physical and chemical characteristics facilitate migration in groundwater, resulting in widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. Over one-fifth of U.S. public drinking water supplies contain detectable levels of 1,4-dioxane. Remediation efforts using common adsorption and membrane filtration techniques have been ineffective, highlighting the need for alternative removal approaches. While the data evaluating human exposure and health effects are limited, animal studies have shown chronic exposure to cause carcinogenic responses in the liver across multiple species and routes of exposure. Based on this experimental evidence, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has listed 1,4-dioxane as a high priority chemical and classified it as a probable human carcinogen. Despite these health concerns, there are no federal or state maximum contaminant levels for 1,4-dioxane. Effective public health policy for this emerging contaminant requires additional information about human health effects, chemical interactions, environmental fate, analytical detection, and treatment technologies. This review highlights the current state of knowledge, key uncertainties, and data needs for future research on 1,4-dioxane.

KEYWORDS:

1,4-dioxane; Drinking water; Exposure; Health; Remediation; Sensors

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