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J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019 Jun 20. pii: S1525-8610(19)30401-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.05.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Development and Validation of the Nursing Home Care-related Quality of Life Scale.

Author information

Mo-Im Kim Nursing Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Tongmyong University Department of Nursing, Busan, Republic of Korea.
Yonsei University College of Nursing, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Woosuk University Department of Nursing, Wanju, Republic of Korea.
Seoil University Department of Nursing, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Chung-Ang University Red Cross College of Nursing, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:



We developed an instrument to assess nursing home residents' quality of life (QOL), with a focus on QOL-related factors modifiable through nursing home care, within the South Korean context; then, we tested its validity and reliability.


The scale was constructed through a literature review, qualitative interviews, expert panel review, and a focus group interview; then, it was validated through survey research.


Residents (N = 667) from 42 nursing homes in South Korea participated in scale validation.


Ninety-nine items across 5 dimensions were initially drafted through a literature review and qualitative interview data. The expert panel review and a focus group interview yielded a scale with 31 items across 3 dimensions. Next, using survey data from nursing home residents, we examined the construct and concurrent validity and reliability (using Kuder-Richardson 20) of the 31-item QOL scale.


Through a series of factor analyses, the 31 items were reduced to 17 items across 2 dimensions: Environment and Services (13 items) and Social Interaction (4 items). This 17-item scale was further examined for model fitness and reliability. The scale had acceptable to good fit (root mean square error of approximation = 0.07 and 0.07; comparative fit index = 0.83 and 0.98 for Environment and Services and Social Interaction, respectively), and good concurrent validity and internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20 = 0.72).


This 17-item scale is a valid and reliable tool to assess nursing home residents' QOL in South Korea, with a focus on factors modifiable through nursing home care. Through more research to test its usefulness, validity, and reliability, the scale can be used as an index of nursing home care quality and contribute to the development of strategies to improve nursing home residents' QOL.


Instrument development; nursing home; quality of care; quality of life; validity and reliability

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