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J Subst Abuse Treat. 2019 Aug;103:23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2019.05.007. Epub 2019 May 7.

Low levels of initiation, engagement, and retention in substance use disorder treatment including pharmacotherapy among HIV-infected and uninfected veterans.

Author information

1
Center for Research on Health Care, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States; VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, 4100 Allequippa Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States. Electronic address: kraemerkl@upmc.edu.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar Street, Boardman 110, P.O. Box 208056, New Haven, CT 06520-8056, United States.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar Street, Boardman 110, P.O. Box 208056, New Haven, CT 06520-8056, United States; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale School of Public Health, 135 College Street, Suite 200, New Haven, CT 06510-2483, United States.
4
Program for Addiction Research, Clinical Care, Knowledge and Advocacy (PARCKA), Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N 1900 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, United States; Informatics, Decision-Enhancement, and Analytic Sciences Center (IDEAS), VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, 500 Foothill Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84148, United States.
5
Division of General Internal Medicine, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road L475, Portland, OR 97239-3098, United States.
6
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 6700B Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-6902, United States.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in healthcare settings and contribute to poor outcomes, particularly in patients living with HIV. We assessed initiation, engagement, and retention in SUD treatment and pharmacotherapy following an index SUD episode in a national sample of HIV-infected and uninfected patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system.

METHODS:

We used electronic national VA data (years 2000-2015) from 52,995 HIV-infected and 111,229 age-, race-, gender-, and region-matched uninfected patients. We defined index SUD episodes as outpatient visits or inpatient/residential admissions with associated primary or secondary ICD-9 codes for substance use in patients without SUD-related services or pharmacotherapy in the preceding 5 months.

RESULTS:

Overall, 57,428 (35%) patients had at least 1 index SUD episode. HIV-infected patients were more likely than uninfected controls to have at least one index SUD episode (35.7% vs. 34.6%; p < .001). Rates of initiation, engagement, and retention in SUD treatment after the index SUD episode were <17% for both groups. In adjusted models, HIV-infected patients were more likely than uninfected patients to be retained in SUD treatment at 6 months (Odds Ratio 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-1.16). SUD pharmacotherapy initiation and engagement was uncommon in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this national VA sample, initiation of SUD treatment and pharmacotherapy were uncommon for both HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Interventions to improve initiation, engagement, and retention in the full range of services, including SUD pharmacotherapy, are warranted for all patients with SUD in the VA.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; Opioid treatment; Pharmacotherapy; Substance use disorder treatment; Substance use disorders

PMID:
31229189
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsat.2019.05.007

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