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J Adv Nurs. 2019 Jun 21. doi: 10.1111/jan.14104. [Epub ahead of print]

Happiness or hopelessness in late life: A double-blinded cluster RCT of the 3L-Mind-Training programme among the institutionalized older people.

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School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, 361102, PR China.
Putian University, Putian, Fujian, 351100, China.
School of Economics, Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.



To explore the effectiveness of a new mental health promotion activities program by including the criterion variables of happiness and depressive mood.


A double-blinded, clustered, randomized and controlled trial.


A list of older residents was provided by the senior social worker at a geriatric institution. The participant inclusion criteria were living on one of four different floors that had separate and noninterfering spaces and having comparable disabilities. The researchers randomly selected residents on two floors as members of the intervention group; the other residents were considered the control group. The intervention groups attended 6 weeks of the 3L-Mind-Training program, whereas the control group only engaged in regular health promotion activities. The mini version of the Chinese Happiness Inventory was adapted to measure happiness. The Geriatric Depression Scale short-form was used to measure depression in older people. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the short-term and durative effects.


The 126 residents ranged in age from 65-97 years old and 90% of the residents relied on wheelchairs. The intervention activities provided significant immediate and durative effects both on subjective well-being enhancement and depressive mood relief. When evaluating the overall intervention activity, 93.8% of the aged residents indicated that this program was helpful and allowed them to view life events positively.


A well-planned mind-training program could help older people reform their viewpoint and create a more fun and happy experience of ageing.


Data came from the project, initiated in 2014, which was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan and was approved by the Institutional Review Board in Chung Shan Medical University (No. CS15009). The trial registration number of the study was No. ChiCTR1900021811. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


cluster RCT; depression; institution; mental health promotion; nursing home; older people; subjective well-being


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