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J Physiol. 2019 Jun 17. doi: 10.1113/JP277270. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-inflammatory effects of oestrogen mediate the sexual dimorphic response to lipid-induced insulin resistance.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
2
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 05508-000.
3
Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
4
Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
5
Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
6
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA.
7
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Abstract

KEY POINTS:

Oestrogen has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in both human and rodent studies. Insulin sensitivity is greater in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men, and metabolism-related cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are less frequent in these same women. Both female and male mice treated with oestradiol are protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance. The protection against obesity-induced insulin resistance is associated with reduced ectopic lipid content in liver and skeletal muscle. These results were associated with increased insulin-stimulated suppression of white adipose tissue lipolysis and reduced inflammation.

ABSTRACT:

Oestrogen has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in both human and rodent studies. Overall, females are protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance; yet, the mechanisms responsible for this protection are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the underlying mechanism(s) by which female mice are protected against obesity-induced insulin resistance compared with male mice. We studied male and female mice in age-matched or body weight-matched conditions. They were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or regular chow for 4 weeks. We also studied HFD male mice treated with oestradiol or vehicle. Both HFD female and HFD male mice treated with oestradiol displayed increased whole-body insulin sensitivity, associated with reduction in ectopic hepatic and muscle lipid content compared to HFD male mice. Reductions in ectopic lipid content in these mice were associated with increased insulin-stimulated suppression of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis. Both HFD female and HFD male mice treated with oestradiol also displayed striking reductions in WAT inflammation, represented by reductions in plasma and adipose tissue tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that HFD female mice are protected from obesity-induced insulin resistance due to oestradiol-mediated reductions in WAT inflammation, leading to improved insulin-mediated suppression of WAT lipolysis and reduced ectopic lipid content in liver and skeletal muscle.

KEYWORDS:

Estradiol; Insulin resistance; NAFLD; Sexual dimorphism

PMID:
31206703
DOI:
10.1113/JP277270

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