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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 Jun 4. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15985. [Epub ahead of print]

Factors Associated With Deprescribing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Older Nursing Home Residents With Severe Dementia.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2
Geriatric Division, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
3
Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
4
Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Medication Safety, Hines, Illinois.
5
Department of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, University of North Carolina Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE:

Uncertainty regarding benefits and risks associated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in severe dementia means providers do not know if and when to deprescribe. We sought to identify which patient-, provider-, and system-level characteristics are associated with AChEI discontinuation.

DESIGN:

Analysis of 2015 to 2016 data from Medicare claims, Part D prescriptions, Minimum Data Set (MDS), version 3.0, Area Health Resource File, and Nursing Home Compare. Cox-proportional hazards models with time-varying covariates were used to identify patient-, provider-, and system-level factors associated with AChEI discontinuation (30-day or more gap in supply).

SETTING:

US Medicare-certified nursing homes (NHs).

PARTICIPANTS:

Nonskilled NH residents, aged 65 years and older, with severe dementia receiving AChEIs within the first 14 days of an MDS assessment in 2016 (n = 37 106).

RESULTS:

The sample was primarily white (78.7%), female (75.5%), and aged 80 years or older (77.4%). The most commonly prescribed AChEIs were donepezil (77.8%), followed by transdermal rivastigmine (14.6%). The cumulative incidence of AChEI discontinuation was 29.7% at the end of follow-up (330 days), with mean follow-up times of 194 days for continuous users of AChEIs and 105 days for those who discontinued. Factors associated with increased likelihood of discontinuation were new admission, older age, difficulty being understood, aggressive behavior, poor appetite, weight loss, mechanically altered diet, limited prognosis designation, hospitalization in 90 days prior, and northeastern region. Factors associated with decreased likelihood of discontinuation included memantine use, use of strong anticholinergics, polypharmacy, rurality, and primary care prescriber vs geriatric specialist.

CONCLUSION:

Among NH residents with severe dementia being treated with AChEIs, the cumulative incidence of AChEI discontinuation was just under 30% at 1 year of follow-up. Our findings provide insight into potential drivers of deprescribing AChEIs, identify system-level barriers to deprescribing, and help to inform covariates that are needed to address potential confounding in studies evaluating the potential risks and benefits associated with deprescribing.

KEYWORDS:

Medicare; cholinesterase inhibitors; dementia; deprescribing; nursing home

PMID:
31162642
DOI:
10.1111/jgs.15985

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