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J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019 Apr 28. pii: S1525-8610(19)30271-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2019.03.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Preventable Hospitalizations Among Nursing Home Residents With Dementia and Behavioral Health Disorders.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY. Electronic address: helena_temkin-greener@urmc.rochester.edu.
2
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.
3
Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Nursing home (NH) residents with Alzheimer's disease/related dementias (ADRD) and/or behavioral health disorders (BHD) are at high risk of hospitalizations, many of which are potentially avoidable. Empirical evidence regarding potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAHs) among these residents is quite sparse and mixed. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the risk of PAH among residents with ADRD only, BHD only, ADRD and BHD compared to residents with neither and (2) identify associations between individual- and facility-level factors and PAH in these subgroups.

DESIGN:

Retrospective, CY2014-2015.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:

Long-term residents age 65+ (N = 807,630) residing in 15,234 NHs.

METHODS:

We employed the Minimum Data Set, MedPAR, Medicare beneficiary summary, and Nursing Home Compare. Hospitalization risk was the outcome of interest. Individual-level covariates were used to adjust for health conditions. Facility-level covariates and state dummies were included. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to estimate the risk of PAH and non-potentially avoidable hospitalizations (N-PAH).

RESULTS:

Compared to residents without ADRD or BHD, those with ADRD had at least a 10% lower relative risk ratio (RRR) of N-PAH and a significantly lower risk of PAH, at 16% (P < .0001). Residents with BHD only had a statistically higher, but clinically very modest (RRR = 1.03) risk of N-PAH, with no difference in the risk of PAH. Focusing on specific BHD conditions, we found no difference in N-PAH or PAH among residents with depression, lower PAH risk among those with schizophrenia/psychosis (RRR = 0.92), and an increased risk of both N-PAH (RRR = 1.15) and PAH (RRR = 1.09) among residents with bipolar disorders.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

We observed a lower risk of PAH and N-PAH among residents with ADRD, with the risk for residents with BHD varying by condition. Substantial variations in PAH and N-PAH were evident across states. Future research is needed to identify state-level modifiable factors that explain these variations.

KEYWORDS:

Avoidable hospitalizations; behavioral disorders; dementia; nursing homes

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