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Antiviral Res. 2019 Jul;167:110-116. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.010. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Structural and pharmacological evaluation of a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as a promising long acting nanoformulation for treating HIV.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8066, USA; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8066, USA.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
4
Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8107, USA.
5
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8066, USA; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8066, USA. Electronic address: karen.anderson@yale.edu.

Abstract

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been proven effective in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and has significantly improved the health outcomes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The therapeutic benefits of cART have been challenged because of the toxicity and emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains along with lifelong patient compliance resulting in non-adherence. These issues also hinder the clinical benefits of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), which are one of the vital components of cART for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In this study, using a computational and structural based drug design approach, we have discovered an effective HIV -1 NNRTI, compound I (Cmpd I) that is very potent in biochemical assays and which targets key residues in the allosteric binding pocket of wild-type (WT)-RT as revealed by structural studies. Furthermore, Cmpd I exhibited very potent antiviral activity in HIV-1 infected T cells, lacked cytotoxicity (therapeutic index >100,000), and no significant off-target effects were noted in pharmacological assays. To address the issue of non-adherence, we developed a long-acting nanoformulation of Cmpd I (Cmpd I-NP) using poly (lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) particles. The pharmacokinetic studies of free and nanoformulated Cmpd I were carried out in BALB/c mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Cmpd I and Cmpd I-NP in BALB/c mice revealed prolonged serum residence time of 48 h and 30 days, respectively. The observed serum concentrations of Cmpd I in both cases were sufficient to provide >97% inhibition in HIV-1 infected T-cells. The significant antiviral activity along with favorable pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile of Cmpd I, provide compelling and critical support for its further development as an anti-HIV therapeutic agent.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1; Long-acting nanoformulation; Mice model; Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; Pharmacokinetic studies; X-ray crystallography

PMID:
31034849
PMCID:
PMC6554724
[Available on 2020-07-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.010

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