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Kidney Int. 2019 Apr;95(4):797-814. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2018.11.042.

Regulated necrosis and failed repair in cisplatin-induced chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, USA.
2
Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
4
Curriculum and Research Support Department, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
6
Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address: Robert.safirstein@yale.edu.

Abstract

Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but significant nephrotoxicity limits its clinical use. Despite extensive investigation of the acute cellular and molecular responses to cisplatin, the mechanisms of progression from acute to chronic kidney injury have not been explored. We used functional and morphological metrics to establish a time-point when the transition from acute and reversible kidney injury to chronic and irreparable kidney disease is clearly established. In mice administered 1 or 2 doses of intraperitoneal cisplatin separated by 2 weeks, kidney function returned toward baseline two weeks after the first dose, but failed to return to normal two weeks following a second dose. Multiphoton microscopy revealed increased glomerular epithelial and proximal tubular damage in kidneys exposed to two doses of cisplatin compared with those exposed to a single dose. In contrast, there was no evidence of fibrosis, macrophage invasion, or decrease in endothelial cell mass in chronically diseased kidneys. Pathway analysis of microarray data revealed regulated necrosis as a key determinant in the development of chronic kidney disease after cisplatin administration. Western blot analysis demonstrated activation of proteins involved in necroptosis and increased expression of kidney injury markers, cellular stress response regulators, and upstream activators of regulated necrosis, including Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. These data suggest that unresolved injury and sustained activation of regulated necrosis pathways, rather than fibrosis, promote the progression of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease.

KEYWORDS:

cisplatin CKD; failed repair; regulated necrosis

Comment in

PMID:
30904067
PMCID:
PMC6543531
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.kint.2018.11.042

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