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Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 Feb;83(1):6922. doi: 10.5688/ajpe6922.

Pre-Class Learning Methods for Flipped Classrooms.

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University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, Michigan.


Objective. To review the types of pre-class learning modalities used in flipped classrooms (FC) and team-based learning (TBL) and determine best practices. Findings. Forty-eight articles were included. Reading materials or video lectures were used most often as the primary modality to deliver the pre-class learning. Students favored assignments that have clear objectives, provide guidance, are guided, and are brief. Summary. This study describes how pharmacy schools and colleges are implementing FC into their curricula and the types of pre-class learning that are being developed and assigned with the implementation. More research should be done in comparing the impact of different types of pre-class material on learning outcomes, such as knowledge retention. This is especially important in FC settings because the in-class learning and higher order activities are built upon having a good foundational knowledge, which comes from the pre-class learning.


flipped classroom; pre-class; pre-work; team-based learning

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