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Cancer Epidemiol. 2019 Apr;59:158-165. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2019.01.022. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Parental age and the risk of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

Author information

1
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
2
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
3
Division of Epidemiology & Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, U.
4
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon, France; Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Cancer Prevention and Control, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, CT, USA.
6
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
7
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
8
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
9
Epidemiology and Cancer Statistics Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.
10
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
11
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Department of Translational Medicine, CPO Piedmont and University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.
12
Epidemiology and Cancer Statistics Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom; Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Program, Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
13
Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Texas Children's Cancer Center, TX, USA.
14
Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica.
15
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Department of Preventative and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
16
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
17
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.
18
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Section of Environment and Radiation, Lyon, France.
19
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Greece; Center for Evidence Synthesis in Health, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.
20
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: epetrid@med.uoa.gr.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Parental age has been associated with several childhood cancers, albeit the evidence is still inconsistent.

AIM:

To examine the associations of parental age at birth with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among children aged 0-14 years using individual-level data from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) and non-CLIC studies.

MATERIAL/METHODS:

We analyzed data of 3182 incident AML cases and 8377 controls from 17 studies [seven registry-based case-control (RCC) studies and ten questionnaire-based case-control (QCC) studies]. AML risk in association with parental age was calculated using multiple logistic regression, meta-analyses, and pooled-effect estimates. Models were stratified by age at diagnosis (infants <1 year-old vs. children 1-14 years-old) and by study design, using five-year parental age increments and controlling for sex, ethnicity, birthweight, prematurity, multiple gestation, birth order, maternal smoking and education, age at diagnosis (cases aged 1-14 years), and recruitment time period.

RESULTS:

Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from RCC, but not from the QCC, studies showed a higher AML risk for infants of mothers ≥40-year-old (OR = 6.87; 95% CI: 2.12-22.25). There were no associations observed between any other maternal or paternal age group and AML risk for children older than one year.

CONCLUSIONS:

An increased risk of infant AML with advanced maternal age was found using data from RCC, but not from QCC studies; no parental age-AML associations were observed for older children.

KEYWORDS:

Childhood cancer; Epidemiology; Infant acute myeloid leukemia; Maternal age; Paternal age; Risk factors

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