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Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 13;9(1):1912. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36802-5.

Clinical Potential of a New Approach to MRI Acceleration.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 60a, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.


Fast ROtary Nonlinear Spatial ACquisition (FRONSAC) was recently introduced as a new strategy that applies nonlinear gradients as a small perturbation to improve image quality in highly undersampled MRI. In addition to experimentally showing the previously simulated improvement to image quality, this work introduces the insight that Cartesian-FRONSAC retains many desirable features of Cartesian imaging. Cartesian-FRONSAC preserves the existing linear gradient waveforms of the Cartesian sequence while adding oscillating nonlinear gradient waveforms. Experiments show that performance is essentially identical to Cartesian imaging in terms of (1) resilience to experimental imperfections, like timing errors or off-resonance spins, (2) accommodating scan geometry changes without the need for recalibration or additional field mapping, (3) contrast generation, as in turbo spin echo. Despite these similarities to Cartesian imaging, which provides poor parallel imaging performance, Cartesian-FRONSAC consistently shows reduced undersampling artifacts and better response to advanced reconstruction techniques. A final experiment shows that hardware requirements are also flexible. Cartesian-FRONSAC improves accelerated imaging while retaining the robustness and flexibility critical to real clinical use.

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