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Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2019 Apr;180(3):186-203. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32712. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Co-shared genetics and possible risk gene pathway partially explain the comorbidity of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Author information

1
Mood and Anxiety Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
2
Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 19, Military and Veteran Microbiome: Consortium for Research and Education (MVM-CoRE), Denver, Colorado.
3
Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 5, VA Capitol Health Care Network, Baltimore, Maryland.
4
National Institute of Genomic Medicine, Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomic Laboratory, Mexico City, Mexico.
5
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disease, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
7
Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
8
Department of Statistics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.
9
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Bios Biotech Multi-Diagnostic Health Center, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in treatment-naive patients are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). SCZ, MDD, T2D, and MetS are often comorbid and their comorbidity increases cardiovascular risk: Some risk genes are likely co-shared by them. For instance, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase 9 (PSMD9) are two genes independently reported as contributing to T2D and SCZ, and PSMD9 to MDD as well. However, there are scarce data on the shared genetic risk among SCZ, MDD, T2D, and/or MetS. Here, we briefly describe T2D, MetS, SCZ, and MDD and their genetic architecture. Next, we report separately about the comorbidity of SCZ and MDD with T2D and MetS, and their respective genetic overlap. We propose a novel hypothesis that genes of the prolactin (PRL)-pathway may be implicated in the comorbidity of these disorders. The inherited predisposition of patients with SCZ and MDD to psychoneuroendocrine dysfunction may confer increased risk of T2D and MetS. We illustrate a strategy to identify risk variants in each disorder and in their comorbid psychoneuroendocrine and mental-metabolic dysfunctions, advocating for studies of genetically homogeneous and phenotype-rich families. The results will guide future studies of the shared predisposition and molecular genetics of new homogeneous endophenotypes of SCZ, MDD, and metabolic impairment.

KEYWORDS:

Major Depressive Disorder; Metabolic Syndrome; Prolactin and Oxytocin Gene Pathway; Schizophrenia; Type 2 Diabetes

PMID:
30729689
PMCID:
PMC6492942
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1002/ajmg.b.32712

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