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Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 25;10(1):431. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-08054-4.

Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers.

Jiang X1,2, Finucane HK3,4, Schumacher FR5,6, Schmit SL7,8, Tyrer JP9, Han Y10, Michailidou K11,12, Lesseur C13,14, Kuchenbaecker KB15,16, Dennis J11, Conti DV17, Casey G18,19, Gaudet MM20, Huyghe JR21, Albanes D22, Aldrich MC23, Andrew AS24, Andrulis IL25,26, Anton-Culver H27, Antoniou AC11, Antonenkova NN28, Arnold SM29, Aronson KJ30, Arun BK31, Bandera EV32, Barkardottir RB33,34, Barnes DR11, Batra J35,36, Beckmann MW37, Benitez J38,39, Benlloch S11,40, Berchuck A41, Berndt SI22, Bickeböller H42, Bien SA21,43, Blomqvist C44,45, Boccia S46,47, Bogdanova NV28,48,49, Bojesen SE50,51,52, Bolla MK11, Brauch H53,54,55, Brenner H55,56,57, Brenton JD58, Brook MN40, Brunet J59, Brunnström H60,61, Buchanan DD62,63,64, Burwinkel B65,66, Butzow R67, Cadoni G46,47, Caldés T68, Caligo MA69, Campbell I70,71, Campbell PT20, Cancel-Tassin G72,73, Cannon-Albright L74,75, Campa D76,77, Caporaso N22, Carvalho AL78,79, Chan AT80,81, Chang-Claude J76,82, Chanock SJ22, Chen C83, Christiani DC3, Claes KBM84, Claessens F85, Clements J35,36, Collée JM86, Correa MC87, Couch FJ88, Cox A89, Cunningham JM88, Cybulski C90, Czene K91, Daly MB92, deFazio A93,94, Devilee P95,96, Diez O97, Gago-Dominguez M98,99, Donovan JL100, Dörk T49, Duell EJ101, Dunning AM9, Dwek M102, Eccles DM103, Edlund CK104, Edwards DRV105, Ellberg C106, Evans DG107, Fasching PA37,108, Ferris RL109, Liloglou T110, Figueiredo JC111,112, Fletcher O113, Fortner RT76, Fostira F114, Franceschi S115, Friedman E116,117, Gallinger SJ118,119,120, Ganz PA121, Garber J122, García-Sáenz JA68, Gayther SA123,124,125, Giles GG126,127,128, Godwin AK129, Goldberg MS130,131, Goldgar DE132, Goode EL133, Goodman MT134,135, Goodman G136, Grankvist K137, Greene MH138, Gronberg H91, Gronwald J90, Guénel P139, Håkansson N140, Hall P91,141, Hamann U142, Hamdy FC143, Hamilton RJ144, Hampe J145, Haugen A146, Heitz F147,148, Herrero R149, Hillemanns P49, Hoffmeister M56, Høgdall E150,151, Hong YC152, Hopper JL127, Houlston R153, Hulick PJ154,155, Hunter DJ156, Huntsman DG157,158,159, Idos G17, Imyanitov EN160, Ingles SA17, Isaacs C161, Jakubowska A90,162, James P71,163, Jenkins MA62,127, Johansson M14, Johansson M164, John EM165, Joshi AD3,166, Kaneva R167, Karlan BY168, Kelemen LE169, Kühl T170, Khaw KT171, Khusnutdinova E172,173, Kibel AS174, Kiemeney LA175, Kim J176, Kjaer SK150,177, Knight JA178,179, Kogevinas M39,180,181,182, Kote-Jarai Z40, Koutros S183, Kristensen VN184,185,186, Kupryjanczyk J187, Lacko M188, Lam S189, Lambrechts D190,191, Landi MT192, Lazarus P193, Le ND194, Lee E123, Lejbkowicz F195, Lenz HJ104, Leslie G11, Lessel D196, Lester J168, Levine DA197,198, Li L199,200, Li CI201, Lindblom A202, Lindor NM203, Liu G204, Loupakis F205, Lubiński J90, Maehle L206, Maier C207, Mannermaa A208,209,210, Marchand LL211, Margolin S212, May T213, McGuffog L11, Meindl A214, Middha P76,215, Miller A216, Milne RL126,127, MacInnis RJ126,127, Modugno F217,218, Montagna M219, Moreno V220, Moysich KB221, Mucci L3, Muir K222,223, Mulligan AM224,225, Nathanson KL226, Neal DE58,143,227, Ness AR228, Neuhausen SL229, Nevanlinna H230, Newcomb PA21,43, Newcomb LF21,231, Nielsen FC232, Nikitina-Zake L233, Nordestgaard BG50,51,52, Nussbaum RL234, Offit K235,236, Olah E237, Olama AAA11,238, Olopade OI239, Olshan AF240,241, Olsson H106, Osorio A38,39, Pandha H242, Park JY243, Pashayan N244,245, Parsons MT246, Pejovic T247,248, Penney KL81, Peters WHM249, Phelan CM243, Phipps AI21,250, Plaseska-Karanfilska D251, Pring M252, Prokofyeva D172, Radice P253, Stefansson K254, Ramus SJ255,256, Raskin L257, Rennert G258, Rennert HS258, van Rensburg EJ259, Riggan MJ41, Risch HA260, Risch A261,262,263, Roobol MJ264, Rosenstein BS265,266, Rossing MA83,267, De Ruyck K268, Saloustros E269, Sandler DP270, Sawyer EJ271, Schabath MB243, Schleutker J272,273,274, Schmidt MK275,276, Setiawan VW277, Shen H278, Siegel EM7, Sieh W279, Singer CF280, Slattery ML281, Sorensen KD282,283, Southey MC284,285, Spurdle AB246, Stanford JL21,250, Stevens VL20, Stintzing S286, Stone J127,287, Sundfeldt K288, Sutphen R289, Swerdlow AJ40,290, Tajara EH291,292, Tangen CM293, Tardon A294, Taylor JA270,295, Teare MD296, Teixeira MR297,298, Terry MB299, Terry KL300,301, Thibodeau SN88, Thomassen M302, Bjørge L303,304, Tischkowitz M305,306, Toland AE307, Torres D142,308, Townsend PA309, Travis RC310, Tung N311, Tworoger SS3,243, Ulrich CM21,312, Usmani N313,314, Vachon CM133, Van Nieuwenhuysen E315, Vega A39,316, Aguado-Barrera ME316, Wang Q11, Webb PM317, Weinberg CR318, Weinstein S22, Weissler MC319, Weitzel JN320, West CML321, White E322,323, Whittemore AS324,325, Wichmann HE326,327,328, Wiklund F91, Winqvist R329,330, Wolk A140,331, Woll P332, Woods M333, Wu AH123, Wu X334, Yannoukakos D114, Zheng W257, Zienolddiny S146, Ziogas A27, Zorn KK335, Lane JM4,336, Saxena R4,336, Thomas D123, Hung RJ178,179, Diergaarde B337,338, McKay J339, Peters U250, Hsu L21, García-Closas M22, Eeles RA40,340, Chenevix-Trench G246, Brennan PJ14, Haiman CA17, Simard J341, Easton DF9,11, Gruber SB123, Pharoah PDP9,11, Price AL156,3,4, Pasaniuc B342, Amos CI343, Kraft P344,345, Lindström S346,347.

Author information

1
Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. xiajiang@hsph.harvard.edu.
2
Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels vagen 13, 17177, Stockholm, Sweden. xiajiang@hsph.harvard.edu.
3
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
4
Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 75 Ames St, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.
5
Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Eucid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
6
Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
7
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr. MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.
8
Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr. MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.
9
Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, 2 Worts' Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
10
Department of Biomedical Data Science, The Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, 1 Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH, 03756, USA.
11
Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, 2 Worts' Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
12
Department of Electron Microscopy/Molecular Pathology, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, 1683, Nicosia, Cyprus.
13
Genetic Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69008, Lyon, France.
14
Section of Genetics, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008, Lyon, France.
15
Division of Psychiatry, University College London, Maple House, 149 Tottenham Court Road, London, W1T 7NF, UK.
16
UCL Genetics Institute, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
17
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 48109, USA.
18
Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800717, Charlottesville, VI, 22908, USA.
19
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 800717, Charlottesville, VI, 22908, USA.
20
Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, 250 Williams Street NW, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.
21
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA, 98109-1024, USA.
22
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.
23
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Division of Epidemiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 609 Oxford House, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.
24
Department of Neurology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, 7927 Rubin Building, Room 860, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH, 3756, USA.
25
Fred ALitwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G1X5, Canada.
26
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S1A8, Canada.
27
Department of Epidemiology, Genetic Epidemiology Research Institute, University of California Irvine, 224 Irvine Hall, Irvine, CA, 92617, USA.
28
NNAlexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Settlement of Lesnoy-2, 223040, Minsk, Belarus.
29
Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, cc445, Lexington, KY, 40508, USA.
30
Department of Public Health Sciences, and Cancer Research Institute, Queen's University, 10 Stuart Street, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada.
31
Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
32
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, Room 5568, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903, USA.
33
Department of Pathology, Landspitali University Hospital, Hringbraut, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland.
34
BMC (Biomedical Centre), Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmyrarvegi 16, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland.
35
Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Qld, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent St, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia.
36
Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Biomedical Science, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Ave, Kelvin Grove, QLD, 4059, Australia.
37
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen Nuremberg, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 21-23, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
38
Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
39
Biomedical Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), AvMonforte de Lemos, 3-5Pabellón 11Planta 0, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
40
Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, London, SM2 5NG, UK.
41
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, 25171 Morris Bldg, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
42
Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Humboldtallee 32, 37073, Goettingen, Germany.
43
School of Public Health, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Health Science Buidling, F-350, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
44
Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00290, Helsinki, Finland.
45
Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, 70185, Örebro, Sweden.
46
Fondazione Policlinico Universitario AGemelli IRCCS, 00168, Roma, Italy.
47
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168, Roma, Italy.
48
Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
49
Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.
50
Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.
51
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730, Herlev, Denmark.
52
Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.
53
DrMargarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstr112, 70376, Stuttgart, Germany.
54
University of Tübingen, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz, 72074, Tübingen, Germany.
55
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
56
Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
57
Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
58
Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Robinson Way, CB2 0RE, Cambridge, UK.
59
Genetic Counseling Unit, Hereditary Cancer Program, IDIBGI (Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Girona), Catalan Institute of Oncology, CIBERONC, AvFrança s/n, 17007, Girona, Spain.
60
Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Box 117, 221 00, Lund, Sweden.
61
Department of Genetics and Pathology, Division of Laboratory Medicine, 221 85, Lund, Sweden.
62
University of Melbourne Centre for Cancer Research, Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.
63
Colorectal Oncogenomics Group, Department of Clinical Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.
64
Genomic Medicine and Family Cancer Clinic, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.
65
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 440, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
66
Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
67
Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Biomedicum Helsinki 4th floor, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00029, Helsinki, Finland.
68
Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC), Centro Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Calle del Prof Martín Lagos, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
69
Section of Genetic Oncology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University and University Hospital of Pisa, via Roma 67, 56126, Pisa, Italy.
70
Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, 305 Grattan Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
71
Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, 305 Grattan Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
72
Sorbonne Université, GRC N°5 ONCOTYPE-URO, Tenon Hospital, 75020, Paris, France.
73
CeRePP, Tenon Hospital, 75020, Paris, France.
74
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
75
George EWahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
76
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
77
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 56126, Pisa, Italy.
78
Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Rua Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331, Barretos, SP, 784-400, Brazil.
79
Head and Neck Surgery Department, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Pio XII, 1331, Antenor Duarte Villela St, Barretos, SP, 14784-400, Brazil.
80
Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
81
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
82
Cancer Epidemiology Group, University Cancer Center Hamburg (UCCH), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
83
Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
84
Centre for Medical Genetics, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Gent, Belgium.
85
Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, 3000, Belgium.
86
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015, Rotterdam, CN, The Netherlands.
87
University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus and Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Juan, PR, 00936, USA.
88
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First StSW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
89
Sheffield Institute for Nucleic Acids (SInFoNiA), Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
90
International Hereditary Cancer Center, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, ulUnii Lubelskiej 1, 71-252, Szczecin, Poland.
91
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Univ Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.
92
Department of Clinical Genetics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Ave, Philadelphia, PA, 19111, USA.
93
Centre for Cancer Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, 176 Hawkesbury Rd, Sydney, NSW, 2145, Australia.
94
Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Westmead Hospital, Hawkesbury Rd & Darcy Rd, Sydney, NSW, 2145, Australia.
95
Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.
96
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.
97
Oncogenetics Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Area, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.
98
Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, SERGAS, Travesía da Choupana S/N, 15706, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
99
Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.
100
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TH, UK.
101
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL), AvGran Via 199-203, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908, Barcelona, Spain.
102
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster, 309 Regent Street, London, W1B 2HW, UK.
103
Cancer Sciences Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
104
Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
105
Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2525 West End Avenue, Suite 600, Nashville, TN, 37203, USA.
106
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Barngatan 4, Skånes universitetssjukhus, 222 42, Lund, Sweden.
107
Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Division of Evolution and Genomic Sciences, University of Manchester, St Mary's Hospital, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK.
108
David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California at Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
109
Department of Otolaryngology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Cancer Pavilion, University of Pittsburgh, Suite 500, 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15232, USA.
110
Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Roy Castle Lung Cancer Research Programme, The University of Liverpool Institute of Translational Medicine, The Wiliam Duncan Building, 6 West Derby Street, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.
111
Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
112
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
113
The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, 123 Old Brompton Road, London, SW7 3RP, UK.
114
Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, INRASTES, National Centre for Scientific Research 'Demokritos', Neapoleos 10, AgParaskevi, Athens, 15310, Greece.
115
Section of Infections, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008, Lyon, France.
116
The Susanne Levy Gertner Oncogenetics Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Emek HaEla St 1, 52621, Ramat Gan, Israel.
117
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Haim Levanon 30, 69978, Ramat Aviv, Israel.
118
Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X5, Canada.
119
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X5, Canada.
120
University Health Network Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth St, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.
121
Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Division of Cancer Prevention & Control Research, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Centre, UCLA, 650 Charles Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-6900, USA.
122
Cancer Risk and Prevention Clinic, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
123
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1975 Zonal Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
124
Center for Cancer Prevention and Translational Genomics, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Spielberg Building, 8725 Alden Dr, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
125
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Spielberg Building, 8725 Alden Dr, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
126
Cancer Epidemiology & Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, 615 St Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.
127
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Level 1, 723 Swanston Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.
128
Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
129
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.
130
Department of Medicine, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montréal, QC, H4A3J1, Canada.
131
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montréal, QC, H4A3J1, Canada.
132
Department of Dermatology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
133
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First StSW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
134
Cancer Prevention and Control, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Room 1S37, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
135
Community and Population Health Research Institute, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Room 1S37, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
136
Public Health Sciences Division, Swedish Cancer Institute, 1221 Madison StSte 300, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
137
Unit of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, By 6M van 2, Sjukhusomradet, Umea universitet, 901 85, Umea, Sweden.
138
Clinical Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, DCEG, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Bethesda, MD, 20850-9772, USA.
139
Cancer & Environment Group, Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP), INSERM, University Paris-Sud, University Paris-Saclay, 94805, Villejuif, France.
140
Department of Environmental Medicine, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 13, SE-171 77, SE-171, Stockholm, Sweden.
141
Department of Oncology, Södersjukhuset, Sjukhusbacken 10, 118 83, Stockholm, Sweden.
142
Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
143
Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Science, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 2JD, UK.
144
Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M5G2M9, Canada.
145
Department of Internal Medicine 1, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden (TU Dresden), 01307, Dresden, Germany.
146
National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Gydas vei 8, 0033, Oslo, Norway.
147
Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, DrHorst Schmidt Kliniken Wiesbaden, Ludwig-Erhard-Straße 100, 65199, Wiesbaden, Germany.
148
Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Kliniken Essen-Mitte/ EvangHuyssens-Stiftung/ Knappschaft GmbH, Henricistrasse 92, 45136, Essen, Germany.
149
Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008, Lyon, France.
150
Department of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
151
Molecular Unit, Department of Pathology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark.
152
Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151 742, Korea.
153
German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute for Cancer Research, Ingolstadter Landstr1, London, SM2 5NG, UK.
154
Center for Medical Genetics, NorthShore University HealthSystem, 1000 Central St, Evanston, IL, 60201, USA.
155
The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, 924 E 57th St, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
156
Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
157
British Columbia's Ovarian Cancer Research (OVCARE) Program, Vancouver General Hospital, BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, #3427-600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6, Canada.
158
Department of Molecular Oncology, BC Cancer Agency Research Centre, #3427-600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6, Canada.
159
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, #3427-600 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6, Canada.
160
NNPetrov Institute of Oncology, Leningradskaya ul, 68, StPetersburg, Russia, 197758.
161
Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3800 Reservoir Road, Washington, DC, 20007, USA.
162
Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics, Pomeranian Medical University, Rybacka 1, 70-204, Szczecin, Poland.
163
Parkville Familial Cancer Centre, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, 305 Grattan Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
164
Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, By 6M van 2, Sjukhusomradet, Umea universitet, 901 85, Umea, Sweden.
165
Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 780 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA, 94304, USA.
166
Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 02114, Boston, MA, USA.
167
Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, 1504, Bulgaria.
168
Women's Cancer Program at the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
169
Hollings Cancer Center and Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 68 President Street Bioengineering Building, MSC955, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.
170
Cancer Epidemiology, University Cancer Center Hamburg (UCCH), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
171
Clinical Gerontology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, 2 Worts' Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
172
Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, ulZaki Validi 32, Ufa, Russia, 450076.
173
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 71 prosp Oktyabrya, Ufa, Russia, 450054.
174
Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusettes, 02115, USA.
175
Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein 21, 6525 EZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
176
Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler St, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
177
Department of Gynaecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
178
Prosserman Centre for Population Health Research, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, 60 Murray Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3L9, Canada.
179
Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5T3M7, Canada.
180
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), ISGlobal, 08036, Barcelona, Spain.
181
IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, 08003, Spain.
182
Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, 08002, Spain.
183
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
184
Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Ullernchausseen 70, 0379, Oslo, Norway.
185
Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, 0450, Oslo, Norway.
186
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, 0450, Oslo, Norway.
187
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics, the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Roentgena 5, 02-781, Warsaw, Poland.
188
Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Maastricht University Medical Center, PDebyelaan 25, POBox 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
189
Department of Integrative Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Room 10-111 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z1L3, Canada.
190
VIB Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3001, Leuven, Belgium.
191
Laboratory for Translational Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven, Oude Markt 13, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
192
Integrative Tumor Epidemiology Branch, DCEG, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Room SG/7E106, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.
193
College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, PBS 431 PO Box 1495, Spokane, WA, 99210-1495, USA.
194
Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L3, Canada.
195
Clalit Health Services, Clalit National Israeli Cancer Control Center, Carmel Medical Center, 2 Horev Street, 3436212, Haifa, Israel.
196
Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.
197
Gynecology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
198
Gynecologic Oncology, Laura and Isaac Pearlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Medical Center, 240 East 38th Street 19th Floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
199
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Mary Ann Swetland Center for Environmental Health, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
200
Servicio Galego de Saude (SERGAS), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), 15706, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
201
Translational Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
202
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Univ Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.
203
Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 EShea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ, 85259, USA.
204
Epidemiology Division, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G2M9, Canada.
205
Unit of Oncology 1, Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IRCCS, 35122, Padua, Italy.
206
Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Kirkeveien 166, 0450, Oslo, Norway.
207
Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Ulm, Prittwitzstrasse 43, 89075, Ulm, Germany.
208
Translational Cancer Research Area, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.
209
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Yliopistonranta 1, 70210, Finland.
210
Imaging Center, Department of Clinical Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, Puijonlaaksontie 2, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.
211
Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo St, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.
212
Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 17177, Sweden.
213
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, OPG Wing, 6-811, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9, Canada.
214
Division of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, , Technische Universität München, Arcisstraße 21, 80333, Munich, Germany.
215
Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, In Neuenheimer Feld 672, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
216
NRG Oncology, Statistics and Data Management Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA.
217
Womens Cancer Research Center, Magee-Womens Research Institute and Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
218
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 300 Halket Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
219
Immunology and Molecular Oncology Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Via Gattamelata 64, Padua, 35128, Italy.
220
Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP) and University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 08908, Spain.
221
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY, 14263, USA.
222
Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary Care, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
223
Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.
224
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S1A8, Canada.
225
Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, M5G2C4, Canada.
226
Department of Medicine, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
227
Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
228
NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Centre Nutrition Theme, University of Bristol, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE, UK.
229
Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 E Duarte, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
230
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290, Helsinki, Finland.
231
Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.
232
Center for Genomic Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
233
Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Ratsupites str 1, Riga, LV-1067, Latvia.
234
Cancer Genetics and Prevention Program, University of California San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero St, San Francisco, CA, 94143-1714, USA.
235
Clinical Genetics Research Lab, Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
236
Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
237
Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Oncology, Ráth György u7-9, 1122, Budapest, Hungary.
238
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.
239
Center for Clinical Cancer Genetics, The University of Chicago, 5841S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
240
Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, 135 Dauer Dr, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7435, USA.
241
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 450 West Dr, Chapell Hill, NC, 27599, USA.
242
The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.
243
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, HLee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.
244
Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.
245
Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Strangeways Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
246
Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.
247
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, L-466, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.
248
Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, L-466, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.
249
Department of Gastroenterology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, Internal BOBox 433, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
250
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.
251
Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 'Georgi DEfremov', Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Boulevard Krste Petkov Misirkov, 1000, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.
252
Bristol Dental School, University of Bristol, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS1 2LY, UK.
253
Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS (Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico) Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), Via Giacomo Venezian 1, 20133, Milan, Italy.
254
Decode genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Reykjavik, Iceland, Iceland.
255
School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW Sydney, 18 High St, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.
256
The Kinghorn Cancer Centre, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Sydney, NSW, 2010, Australia.
257
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Ave S # D3300, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.
258
Clalit National Cancer Control Center, Carmel Medical Center and Technion Faculty of Medicine, 7 Michal Street, 34362, Haifa, Israel.
259
Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.
260
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College St, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.
261
Cancer Center Cluster Salzburg at PLUS, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Billrothstr11, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.
262
Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, DKFZ - German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
263
Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H), 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
264
Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
265
Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 10029, USA.
266
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY, 10029, USA.
267
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, M4 C308, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
268
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Gent, Belgium.
269
Hereditary Cancer Clinic, University Hospital of Heraklion, Voutes, 711 10, Heraklion, Greece.
270
Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 111TWAlexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.
271
Research Oncology, Guy's Hospital, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT, UK.
272
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 20014, Turku, Finland.
273
Division of Laboratory, Department of Medical Genetics, Turku University Hospital, 20014, Turku, Finland.
274
Prostate Cancer Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences and BioMediTech Institute, University of Tampere, 33014, Tampere, Finland.
275
Division of Molecular Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
276
Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
277
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1450 Biggy Street, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.
278
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Ave, Jiangning District, 211166, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.
279
Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1425 Madison Avenue, 2nd floor, New York, NY, 10029, USA.
280
Dept of OB/GYN and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.
281
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, 295 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.
282
Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200, Aarhus, Denmark.
283
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, DK-8200, Aarhus, Denmark.
284
Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia.
285
Department of Clinical Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Cnr Grattan Street and Royal Parade, Melbourne, VIC, 3010, Australia.
286
Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistr15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
287
The Curtin UWA Centre for Genetic Origins of Health and Disease, Curtin University and University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Perth, WA, 6000, Australia.
288
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Inst Clinical Scienses, University of Gothenburg, Blå stråket 6, 41345, Gothenburg, Sweden.
289
Epidemiology Center, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 3650 Spectrum Blvd, Suite 100, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.
290
Division of Breast Cancer Research, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, SW7 3RP, UK.
291
Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto, Av Brig Faria Lima 5416 Vila São Pedro, São José do Rio Preto, SP, 15090-000, Brazil.
292
Department of Genetics and Evolutive Biology, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 321, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil.
293
SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, 98109, USA.
294
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oviedo and CIBERESP, Campus del Cristo s/n, 33006, Oviedo, Spain.
295
Epigenetic and Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 111TWAlexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.
296
Medical Statistics Group, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield, S1 4DA, UK.
297
Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Rua DrAntónio Bernardino de Almeida 62, 4220-072, Porto, Portugal.
298
Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), University of Porto, RJorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-013, Porto, Portugal.
299
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
300
Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue RFB 368, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
301
Harvard THChan School of Public Health, 221 Longwood Avenue RFB 368, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
302
Department of Clinical Genetics, Odense University Hospital, Sonder Boulevard 29, 5000, Odence C, Denmark.
303
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021, Bergen, Norway.
304
Centre for Cancer Biomarkers CCBIO, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 5021, Bergen, Norway.
305
Program in Cancer Genetics, Departments of Human Genetics and Oncology, McGill University, 1001 Decarie Boulevard, Montréal, QC, H4A3J1, Canada.
306
Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge University, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.
307
Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University, 460W12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
308
Institute of Human Genetics, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Carrera 7 No40-90, Bogota, Colombia.
309
Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Health Innovation Manchester, University of Manchester, Manchester, M20 4GJ, UK.
310
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.
311
Department of Medical Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
312
Huntsman Cancer Institute and Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Rm 4125, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
313
Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 116 St & 85 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.
314
Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 116 St & 85 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.
315
Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
316
Fundación Pública Galega Medicina Xenómica & Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, calle Choupana s/n, 15706, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
317
Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.
318
Biostatistics and Computational Biology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 111TWAlexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.
319
Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, 27514, NC, USA.
320
City of Hope Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
321
Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre,, The Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.
322
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
323
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.
324
Department of Health Research and Policy - Epidemiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 259 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
325
Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, 259 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.
326
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Neuherberg D-85764, Munich, 803539, Bavaria, Germany.
327
Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstadter Landstr1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.
328
Institute of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Technical University Munich, Munich, 80333, Germany.
329
Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Tumor Biology, Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5A, 90220, Oulu, Finland.
330
Laboratory of Cancer Genetics and Tumor Biology, Northern Finland Laboratory Centre Oulu, Aapistie 5A, 90220, Oulu, Finland.
331
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, 751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
332
Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology, University of Sheffield, Weston Park Hospital, Whitham Road, Sheffield, S10 2SJ, UK.
333
Discipline of Genetics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, StJohn's, NL, A1C 5S7, Canada.
334
Department of Epidemiology, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
335
Magee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 300 Halket St, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
336
Center for Genomic Medicine and Department of Anasthesia, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
337
Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, UPMC Cancer Pavilion, Suite 4C, Office # 467, 5150 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15232, USA.
338
UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, 15232, PA, USA.
339
Genetic Cancer Susceptibility Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008, Lyon, France.
340
Oncogenetics Team, The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, SM2 5NG, UK.
341
Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec - Université Laval Research Center, 2705 Laurier Boulevard, Québec City, QC, G1V4G2, Canada.
342
UCLA Path and Lab Med, University of California, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 190095, USA.
343
Department of Medicine, Epidemiology Section, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Baylor Medical College, One Baylor Plaza, MS: BCM451, Suite 100D, Houston, TX, 77030-3411, USA.
344
Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. pkraft@hsph.harvard.edu.
345
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. pkraft@hsph.harvard.edu.
346
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA, 98109-1024, USA. saralind@uw.edu.
347
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, 1959 NE Pacific St, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA. saralind@uw.edu.

Abstract

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.

PMID:
30683880
PMCID:
PMC6347624
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-08054-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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