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J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2019 Mar;7(2):169-175.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.10.020. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Statin therapy associated with improved thrombus resolution in patients with deep vein thrombosis.

Author information

1
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.
2
Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.
3
Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.
4
Yale Center for Analytical Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Conn.
5
Section of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.
6
Actelion Clinical Research, Clinical Science / Clinical Development, Allschwil, Switzerland.
7
Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. Electronic address: cassius.chaar@yale.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Statin therapy has been associated with a decreased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in clinical trials and enhanced thrombus resolution in animal models. The effect of statins on thrombus resolution has not been reported clinically. This study investigates the association of statins with thrombus resolution or improvement in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

METHODS:

A retrospective study of the electronic medical records of consecutive adult patients presenting with lower extremity DVT was performed. Patients were divided into two groups based on statin therapy (statin group) or lack thereof (nonstatin group). The two groups were compared with respect to demographics, comorbidities, and risk factors for VTE. Initial as well as all subsequent ultrasound reports were reviewed for each patient to determine extent of DVT and subsequent change in thrombus characteristics. Long-term outcomes examined were mortality, VTE recurrence, and thrombus improvement or resolution on follow-up ultrasound examination. Multivariable analysis was used to determine independent predictors of thrombus resolution or improvement, VTE recurrence, and mortality.

RESULTS:

A total of 818 patients with DVT were identified (statin group, n = 279 [34%]; nonstatin group, n = 539 [66%]). The patients in the statin group were significantly older (P < .001). Patients on statins were more likely to have risk factors for and manifestations of atherosclerosis and to be on antiplatelet therapy (P < .001), whereas those in the nonstatin group were more likely to have a hypercoagulable disorder (P = .009) or prior DVT (P = .033). There was no significant difference in provoked DVT, extent of DVT, or association with pulmonary embolism (PE), but patients on statins were more likely to have high-risk PE (P = .046). There was no difference in patients receiving anticoagulation, type and duration of anticoagulation, inferior vena cava filter placement, or treatment with lytic therapy. There was no difference in thrombus resolution, mortality, or recurrence of DVT, PE, or VTE between the groups. On multivariable analysis, age, proximal DVT, CAD, and cancer were associated with higher mortality, whereas anticoagulation with coumadin and direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapy were associated with lower mortality. Statin therapy, antiplatelet therapy, and younger age were associated with thrombus resolution or improvement.

CONCLUSIONS:

Statin therapy is associated with greater thrombus resolution or improvement in patients with DVT. However, statin therapy in this study was not associated with different clinical outcomes of VTE recurrence or mortality.

KEYWORDS:

Antiplatelet; Deep vein thrombosis; Statin; Thrombus resolution; Venous thromboembolism

PMID:
30660579
DOI:
10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.10.020

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