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J Virol. 2019 Feb 5;93(4). pii: e01446-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01446-18. Print 2019 Feb 15.

Neutralization Synergy between HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor Fostemsavir and Anti-CD4 Binding Site Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against HIV.

Author information

1
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
2
Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, GATA Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
3
Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA richard.sutton@yale.edu.

Abstract

Attachment inhibitor (AI) BMS-626529 (fostemsavir) represents a novel class of antiretrovirals which target human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and block CD4-induced conformational changes required for viral entry. It is now in phase III clinical trials and is expected to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the near future. Although fostemsavir is very potent against HIV in vitro and in vivo, a number of resistant mutants have already been identified. Broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bNAbs) can potently inhibit a wide range of HIV-1 strains by binding to viral Env and are very promising candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Since both target viral Env to block viral entry, we decided to investigate the relationship between these two inhibitors. Our data show that Env mutants resistant to BMS-626529 retained susceptibility to bNAbs. A single treatment of bNAb NIH45-46G54W completely inhibited the replication of these escape mutants. Remarkable synergy was observed between BMS-626529 and CD4 binding site (CD4bs)-targeting bNAbs in neutralizing HIV-1 strains at low concentrations. This synergistic effect was enhanced against virus harboring mutations conferring resistance to BMS-626529. The mechanistic basis of the observed synergy is likely enhanced inhibition of CD4 binding to the HIV-1 Env trimer by the combination of BMS-626529 and CD4bs-targeting bNAbs. This work highlights the potential for positive interplay between small- and large-molecule therapeutics against HIV entry, which may prove useful as these agents enter clinical use.IMPORTANCE As the worldwide HIV pandemic continues, there is a continued need for novel drugs and therapies. A new class of drug, the attachment inhibitors, will soon be approved for the treatment of HIV. Broadly neutralizing antibodies are also promising candidates for HIV prevention and therapy. We investigated how this drug might work with these exciting antibodies that are very potent in blocking HIV infection of cells. These antibodies worked against virus known to be resistant to the new drug. In addition, a specific type of antibody worked really well with the new drug in blocking virus infection of cells. This work has implications for both the new drug and the antibodies that are poised to be used against HIV.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1; attachment inhibitor; bNAbs; escape mutants; synergy

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