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Med Care. 2019 Jan;57(1):28-35. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000001016.

Factors Associated With Hospices' Nonparticipation in Medicare's Hospice Compare Public Reporting Program.

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Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT.
Department of Health Services Policy and Management, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.
Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.



To enhance the quality of hospice care and to facilitate consumers' choices, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began the Hospice Quality Reporting Program, in which CMS posted the quality measures of participating hospices on its reporting website, Hospice Compare. Little is known about the participation rate and the types of nonparticipating hospices.


To examine the factors associated with hospices' nonparticipation in Hospice Compare.


We analyzed data from the CMS 2016 Hospice Compare. "Nonparticipants" were those who did not submit any quality measure. With the data of the Provider of Service file, the Healthcare Cost Report Information System, and the Area Health Resources File, multivariate logistic regressions estimated the association between nonparticipants and hospice and market characteristics, including ownership, size, nurse staffing ratio, and market competition intensity.


Among the 4123 certified hospices subject to penalty from nonparticipation, 259 did not participate in Hospice Compare. California, New Mexico, Texas, and Wyoming had participation rates lower than 80%. Hospices that were for-profit, had no accreditation, had few nurses per patient day, provided no inpatient care, and were located in competitive markets were less likely to participate than other hospices.


Hospice Compare successfully motivated hospice in participating in the quality report program in most of states. For-profit hospices, hospices with less quality, and hospices located in competitive markets were less likely to participate. Further research is warranted to examine the quality of these nonparticipants, especially in the 4 states with a lower participation rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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