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AIDS Behav. 2018 Nov 17. doi: 10.1007/s10461-018-2339-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Depression Among Alcohol Consuming, HIV Positive Men on ART Treatment in India.

Author information

1
Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA. tha@uchc.edu.
2
Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.
3
Institute for Community Research, Hartford, CT, USA.
4
Yale School of Public Health, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, New Haven, CT, USA.
5
International Center for Research on Women, Asia Regional Office, Mumbai, India.
6
Population Council, Mumbai, India.

Abstract

Depression, as well as other psychosocial factors, remains largely unaddressed among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in low and middle-income countries. Depression is a common occurrence among PLHIV and is elevated in those who consume alcohol. This paper will document the presence of depressive symptoms in alcohol-consuming male PLHIV receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in India. It examines the correlates of depressive symptoms and uses the data from in-depth interviews to explain the nature of the statistical relationships obtained from an NIH-funded a multilevel, multi-centric intervention study. A cross-sectional, baseline survey was administered to 940 alcohol consuming, male PLHIV in five hospital-based ART Centers in urban Maharashtra, India via face to face interviews from October 2015 to April 2016. An additional 55 men were recruited independently to engage in in-depth interviews on alcohol use and other factors related to adherence. The results of the survey showed that approximately 38% of PLHIV reported having moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with higher levels of family-related concerns (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.12-1.23), work difficulties (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.69-2.69) and HIV-related self-stigma (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03-1.07) and a lower level of ART service satisfaction (OR 0.58 95% CI 0.44-0.77). The results of in-depth interviews showed that PLHIV's tenshun (a Hindi term most closely corresponding to depressive symptoms) resulted from feelings of guilt and concerns about how family, friends, and neighbors might react to their HIV status and the potential for loss of a job as a result of disclosure of their HIV status at work. The level of depressive symptoms among male PLHIV involved in ART treatment points to the need to strengthen the psychological component of PLHIV treatment in India.

KEYWORDS:

Depressive symptoms; Family-related concerns; HIV; Self-stigma; tenshun

PMID:
30446854
DOI:
10.1007/s10461-018-2339-3

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