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Med Care. 2018 Dec;56(12):994-1000. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000998.

The Impact of Chain Standardization on Nursing Home Staffing.

Author information

1
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
2
Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
3
Abt Associates Inc., Durham, NC.
4
Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.
5
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
7
Department of Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Standardization in production is common in multientity chain organizations. Although chains are prominent in the nursing home sector, standardization in care has not been studied. One way nursing home chains may standardize is by controlling the level and mix of staffing in member homes.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the extent to which standardization occurred in staffing, its relative presence across different types of chains, and whether facilities became more standardized following acquisition by a chain.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

We estimated predictors of the difference between facility and chain staffing using Generalized Estimating Equations with 2000-2010 data.

SUBJECTS:

This study included nursing homes nationally, excluding hospital-based homes and homes in Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia.

MEASURES:

Chain ownership was coded from text identifying chain names. Two nurse staffing measures were used: staff hours per resident day and staff mix.

RESULTS:

Very large for-profit chain nursing homes and large nonprofits had less variation in staff hours per resident day (P<0.001) but greater variation in staffing mix (P<0.001) compared with the chain average nationally. Large for-profit chains and medium nonprofit chains had greater dispersion on staff hours per resident day (P<0.001), while large nonprofit chains had greater dispersion in staffing mix (P<0.001). The difference between facility and chain staffing decreased over time.

CONCLUSIONS:

The largest chains (for-profit and nonprofit) had less staffing variation compared with national standards, suggesting they were best at implementing corporate practices. Following ownership changes, staffing converged towards chain averages over time, suggesting standardization takes time to implement.

PMID:
30418961
PMCID:
PMC6263153
[Available on 2019-12-01]
DOI:
10.1097/MLR.0000000000000998
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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