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Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Apr;71(4):632-640. doi: 10.1002/art.40773. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Suppression of Murine Lupus by CD4+ and CD8+ Treg Cells Induced by T Cell-Targeted Nanoparticles Loaded With Interleukin-2 and Transforming Growth Factor β.

Author information

1
General Nanotherapeutics, Santa Monica, California.
2
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
3
Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
4
David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To develop a nanoparticle (NP) platform that can expand both CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells in vivo for the suppression of autoimmune responses in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

METHODS:

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs encapsulating interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) were coated with anti-CD2/CD4 antibodies and administered to mice with lupus-like disease induced by the transfer of DBA/2 T cells into (C57BL/6 × DBA/2)F1 (BDF1) mice. The peripheral frequency of Treg cells was monitored ex vivo by flow cytometry. Disease progression was assessed by measuring serum anti-double-stranded DNA antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kidney disease was defined as the presence of proteinuria or renal histopathologic features.

RESULTS:

Anti-CD2/CD4 antibody-coated, but not noncoated, NPs encapsulating IL-2 and TGFβ induced CD4+ and CD8+ FoxP3+ Treg cells in vitro. The optimal dosing regimen of NPs for expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells was determined in in vivo studies in mice without lupus and then tested in BDF1 mice with lupus. The administration of anti-CD2/CD4 antibody-coated NPs encapsulating IL-2 and TGFβ resulted in the expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells, a marked suppression of anti-DNA antibody production, and reduced renal disease.

CONCLUSION:

This study shows for the first time that T cell-targeted PLGA NPs encapsulating IL-2 and TGFβ can expand both CD4+ and CD8+ Treg cells in vivo and suppress murine lupus. This approach, which enables the expansion of Treg cells in vivo and inhibits pathogenic immune responses in SLE, could represent a potential new therapeutic modality in autoimmune conditions characterized by impaired Treg cell function associated with IL-2 deficiency.

PMID:
30407752
PMCID:
PMC6438734
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1002/art.40773

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