Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Med Educ. 2018 Oct 23;18(1):242. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1347-3.

Enhancement of student perceptions of learner-centeredness and community of inquiry in flipped classrooms.

Author information

Department of Medical Humanities, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, 32 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Goyang, 10326, South Korea.



Flipped classrooms (FC) are expected to create a more student-centered, active learning environment than traditional lectures. This study assessed the effectiveness of FC in promoting a student-centered, active learning environment by examining the changes in student perceptions of the learning environment of FC in terms of student-centeredness and sense of community of inquiry (COI), which represents the elements of a successful learning environment.


Questionnaires were given to a cohort of Year 2 students in a six-year undergraduate medical education program, who had taken an introduction to medicine course in a FC format. The questionnaire included 7 items on the teaching orientation (i.e., teacher-centered vs. student-centered) and 34 items from the Community of Inquiry Survey Instrument, which consisted of three sub-scales - teaching, social, and cognitive presences. The questionnaires were administered in pre- and post-test format during the first and last week of the semester.


A total of 55 students returned the questionnaires (100% response rate). The student perceptions of student-centeredness of FC increased significantly over time (p < 0.001), and their perceptions of COI in FC also increased significantly in all three presences (p < 0.001). The student perceptions of student-centeredness and sense of COI in FC increased significantly in both high-achieving and low-achieving students (p < 0.01).


This study indicates that the flipped classroom model is an effective approach to fostering a learner-centered learning environment and developing a community of inquiry among medical students.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center